Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found onshore but most common in less than 300 m. Shallow-water specimens feed on crustaceans, worms and fish. Moves into bays and coastal waters during colder weather (Ref. 26938). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
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Distribution

Western Central Atlantic: Beaufort, North Carolina south along the coast and into the Gulf of Mexico, where it occurs south off Mexico.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western Central Atlantic: Beaufort, North Carolina south along the coast and into the Gulf of Mexico, where it occurs south off Mexico.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm ---
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5232))
  • Cohen, D.M. 1978 Gadidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 2. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 5232)
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Diagnostic Description

Upper limb of the first gill arch with two rakers. A series of dark spots present on the head; a dusky black blotch on the opercle. Lateral line alternately black and white (Ref 26938).
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Type Information

Type for Phycis floridanus
Catalog Number: USNM 32762
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Stearns
Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, United States, North America
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

demersal; non-migratory; marine; depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 57178)
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2006 OBIS-extracted Depth Data. Harvested by E.Agbayani July 2006 at www.iobis.org. (Ref. 57178)
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Depth range based on 186 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 96 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 433
  Temperature range (°C): 14.230 - 25.997
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 16.740
  Salinity (PPS): 34.478 - 36.676
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.350 - 5.176
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.218
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 8.021

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 433

Temperature range (°C): 14.230 - 25.997

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 16.740

Salinity (PPS): 34.478 - 36.676

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.350 - 5.176

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 1.218

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 8.021
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 400m.
Recorded at 400 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Found onshore but most common in less than 300 m. Shallow-water specimens feed on crustaceans, worms and fish.
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Associations

Known predators

Urophycis floridana (Southern hake and searobins) is prey of:
Odostomia seminuda
Acanthocitona pygmaea
Hylina veliei
Spirals
Nudibranchia
Polinices
Terebra
Seila adamsi
Epitonium albidum
Opalia hotessieriana
Natica pusilla
Urosalpinx perrugata
Busycon spiratum
Marginella aureocincta
Marginella apicina
Marginella bella
Turbonilla dalli
Turbonilla hemphilli
Lophodytes cucullatus
Tringa melanoleuca
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
sediment POC

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Known prey organisms

Urophycis floridana (Southern hake and searobins) preys on:
Nauplii2
Nauplii1
Foraminifera
Nematoda
Polychaeta
Harpacticoida
Pycnogonidae
Acartia tonsa
Pagurus
Pagurus maclaughlinae
Alpheus normani
Hippolyte zostericola
Odostomia seminuda
Acanthocitona pygmaea
Hylina veliei
Spirals
Nudibranchia
Polinices
Terebra
Seila adamsi
Epitonium albidum
Opalia hotessieriana
Natica pusilla
Urosalpinx perrugata
Busycon spiratum
Marginella aureocincta
Marginella apicina
Marginella bella
Turbonilla dalli
Turbonilla hemphilli

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Urophycis floridana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
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Disclaimer

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