Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: sand-bass (English), cabrilla (Espanol)
 
Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner, 1868)


Spotted sand-bass


Body moderately elongate, compressed; body depth 3.0-3.3 in SL; head pointed; mouth large; preopercle finely serrated; lower gill rakers 13-15; dorsal rays X, 13-14,  third spine greatly elevated, about three times longer than second; anal rays III,6-8; pectoral rays 16; 61-68 lateral line scales.


Generally white with numerous black, brown, and orange spots that may coalesce to form dark lines behind lower belly; 6-7 indistinct dark bars on side of body; an oblique bar from eye to lower corner of operculum; smaller fish with a dark line from eye to tail fin; soft dorsal, tail and anal fins densely spotted.


Size: attains 38.1 cm.

Inhabits low-profile, often weed-covered, reefs adjacent to sandy bottoms.

Depth: 1-60 m.

Central California to the Gulf of California, most common in the northern Gulf.
   
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Biology

Usually found on sand or mud bottom near rocks and eelgrass, from the coast to a depth of 60 m. A secretive species, it feeds on small fishes and benthic crustaceans during the day (Ref. 9342). Capable of tolerating ample fluctuations of temperature (from 7.5 to 32°C) and survive extreme cold intervals (Ref. 9342). Pelagic spawners (Ref. 56049). Important game fish caught in bays and harbors (Ref. 9342).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from central California to the tip of Baja, and the Gulf of California. Historically this species has ranged from Monterrey, California to Mazatlan, Mexico (California Fish and Game, 2004).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, California province, primarily, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos)
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Eastern Central Pacific: Monterey in California, USA to Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Also reported in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613).
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 60 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 38.1 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26550)); max. published weight: 900 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 56049)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This reef-associated species inhabits low-profile, often weed-covered, reefs adjacent to sandy substrata areas to depths of 61m. It feeds on small fishes and benthic crustaceans during the day (Heemstra 1995). It is capable of tolerating ample fluctuations of temperature (from 7.5 to 32C) and survive extreme cold intervals (Heemstra 1995). Compared to other species in the area, this species has a limited habitat range and its recruitment is more temperature dependent and variable (California Fish and Game, 2004).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range ? - 61 m (Ref. 2850)
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Depth range based on 132 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 22 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 24
  Temperature range (°C): 18.831 - 22.443
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.133 - 4.527
  Salinity (PPS): 33.781 - 35.261
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.860 - 5.364
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 1.086
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.488 - 12.244

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 24

Temperature range (°C): 18.831 - 22.443

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.133 - 4.527

Salinity (PPS): 33.781 - 35.261

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.860 - 5.364

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.352 - 1.086

Silicate (umol/l): 2.488 - 12.244
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 61m.
Recorded at 61 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Paralabrax maculatofasciatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Paralabrax maculatofasciatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CCTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTAAGCCTTCTTATTCGAGCCGAGCTCAGCCAACCGGGCGCTCTCTTAGGGGACGACCAGATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACACGCTTTTGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTTATTCCTCTAATGATTGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTTTGGCTCCTCCCTCCTTCTTTCCTTCTTCTATTAGCTTCCTCAGGGGTTGAAGCAGGGGCAGGTACAGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCTCCCTTAGCCGGTAACCTGGCTCACGCCGGAGCTTCTGTTGATTTAACAATCTTTTCCCTTCATTTAGCAGGTGTCTCTTCAATTTTAGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCTATTTCTCAATATCAAACACCTTTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTTTTAATTACTGCAGTACTTCTTCTTCTATCCCTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCAGGTATCACAATACTTTTAACGGACCGAAATTTAAATACAACATTCTTTGATCCTGCAGGAGGTGGAGACCCCATCCTCTACCAACACCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E. & Guzman-Mora, A.G.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is restricted to southern California, Baja California, and the Gulf of Mexico.The population in southern California is expected to be stable with the implementation of a system of effective no-take Marine Protected Areas. It is listed as Least Concern. However, given that it is still heavily fished in the Gulf of California, this species should continue to be carefully monitored.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. It is considered common in many parts of its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. The impact of fishing on this species population is unknown. Population trends are difficult to interpret as this species responds positively to ENSO events, which enhance its recruitment (California Fish and Game, 2007).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In the US, commercial fishing of this species is banned, and size limits apply for sport fishing. This species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in southern California currently being developed that will offer greatly enhanced protection. However, it is heavily fished in the Gulf of California, and Marine Protected Areas in this portion of its range may not be providing effective protection for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; gamefish: yes
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