Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits coral reefs with clear water (Ref. 13628). Young may be found in seagrass beds and other heavily vegetated bottoms. Feeds mainly on soft algae, but has been observed to graze on live corals like, Montastraea annularis (Ref. 6496). Produces a significant amount of sediment through bioerosion using its strong beak-like jaws and constantly re-growing teeth (Ref. 6485). Protogynous; strictly diurnal, spends the night sleeping on the bottom (Ref. 5221). Found singly or small in small groups.
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Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: CIRR-310 ; recordedBy: Salvador Zarco Perello ; individualCount: 2 ; Location: continent: America; country: Mexico ; stateProvince: Yucatan; locality: Madagascar Reef ; verbatimDepth: 7 m; verbatimLatitude: 780143.766831; verbatimLongitude: 2373680.0708; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM 15N; verbatimSRS: WGS84; decimalLatitude: 21.443778 ; decimalLongitude: -90.297133 ; Event: samplingProtocol: Photosampling ; eventDate: 24/9/2007 ; Record Level: collectionID: YUC-PEC_239-01-64; institutionCode: UMDI-SISAL ; collectionCode: CIRR

Distribution

Western Atlantic. South Florida to Brazil. Including Bermuda, Bahamas, and throughout the Caribbean Islands.

  • Zarco Perello, Salvador, Moreno Mendoza, Rigoberto, Simoes, Nuno (2014): Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Mexico. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1100: 1100-1100, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1100
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Plazi

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Description: This type shares the characteristic markings of larval and transitional Sparisoma. Recruits become distinct early on when the leukophores on the base of their caudal fin coalesce into a distinct white bar and they develop rows of round white spots, with the two above the pectoral fin most visible. Characteristically, there are no melanophores extending into the white bar (at least until about 15 mm SL, but by then the white bar and rows of white spots are clearly prominent).

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Distribution

Range Description

The species is known from Bermuda and Florida (USA) to Venezuela.
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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: southern Florida (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, and throughout the Caribbean Sea to Brazil.
  • Randall, J.E. 1978 Scaridae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 4. pag.var. (Ref. 3802)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
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Size

Maximum size: 640 mm ---
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Max. size

64.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3802)); max. published weight: 1,600 g (Ref. 26340)
  • Randall, J.E. 1978 Scaridae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 4. pag.var. (Ref. 3802)
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnosis: The larvae of all Sparisoma may well be identical, and DNA sequencing is required to identify species. Transitional recruits develop the basic markings probably shared by all members of the genus, but small juveniles of Sparisoma acquire distinct patterns that separate most, if not all, regional species. S. viride diverges from the remainder of the genus the earliest, with some individuals smaller than 10 mm SL showing a distinct pattern of markings, in particular an undivided prominent white bar on the caudal fin base.

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Relationship between fork length (FL) and maximum body depth (D): D = 0.10 + 0.33(FL); FL = -0.40 + 3.06(D), for n = 79, length range (cm, FL) = 13.5-25.5 (Ref. 3191). A distinctive, colorful and abundant fish. Young adults and females with scales outlined in darker gray; often bright red below. Super males green, with bright yellow spot at upper edge of gill cover, yellow bar at base of tail, curved orange-yellow mark on caudal fin rays (Ref. 26938). Initial phase fish with a brown head, the scales of the upper two-thirds of the body with pale centers and dark brown edges, the lower third of body and fins bright red. Terminal phase males are green with three diagonal orange bands on upper half of head
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reef and seagrass associated from 1-50 m. It inhabits coral reefs with clear water. It feeds mainly on soft algae, but has been observed to graze on live corals. It produces a significant amount of sediment through bioerosion using its strong beak-like jaws and constantly re-growing teeth (Gygi 1975). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. It is found solitary or small in small groups. Young may be found in seagrass beds and algae-rich areas of the reef.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 3 - 49m.
From 3 to 49 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 4041 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2693 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.225 - 32.8
  Temperature range (°C): 24.448 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.024 - 3.505
  Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.613
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.773
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.239
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.225 - 32.8

Temperature range (°C): 24.448 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.024 - 3.505

Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.613

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.773

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.239

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Has been observed to graze on live corals like Montastrea annularis probably due to the absence of adequate seagrasses and large seaweeds in the area (Ref. 6496). Also cleaned by Thalassoma noronhanum observed at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago off northeastern Brazil (Ref. 36301) and by Elacatinus figaro observed off the coast of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 40102). Herbivore (Ref. 33499, 57616).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The type of reproductive behavior is related to the color phase of the males involved.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sparisoma viride

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 17 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTACCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGCACTGCTTTAAGCCTTCTCATCCGAGCTGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGGGCCCTTCTCGGAGACGACCAAATCTATAACGTAATTGTTACTGCTCACGCGTTCGTAATGATCTTTTTTATGGTCATACCCATCATGATTGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTATTCCCCTCATGATTGGAGCACCCGACATGGCCTTCCCACGAATAAATAACATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTTCCGCCCTCCTTCCTTTTACTACTTGCCTCTTCTGGCGTTGAAGCAGGTGCAGGAACAGGATGAACTGTTTATCCCCCACTAGCAGGGAACCTTGCACACGCAGGAGCATCCGTAGACCTAACAATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTCGCAGGGATTTCCTCAATTCTTGGAGCTATTAACTTCATCACAACTATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCTGCTATCTCCCAATATCAAACACCTCTATTWGTGTGAGCTGTCTTAATTACAGCCGTTCTCCTTCTGTTATCCCTGCCCGTTCTCGCCGCAGGAATCACGATACTCCTTACTGACCGTAATCTCAACACTACGTTCTTTGACCCGGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATTCTTTACCAACATTTATTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sparisoma viride

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 20
Specimens with Barcodes: 32
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widely distributed in the western North Atlantic, and is very common. Even though it is caught in the multispecies fisheries and targeted in many places for its relatively large size, there are no indications of global population declines. It is listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This species is common throughout its range (L. Rocha pers comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. Even though fisheries on these and other medium to large-sized parrotfish species in the Caribbean has been steadily increasing, there is no apparent global decline in population sizes (Friedlander and Beets 2008). There are however, severe population declines in reefs close to densily populated areas around Haiti and Jamaica (Hawkins and Roberts 2004).

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. Fisheries for parrotfishes are permanently closed in Bermuda.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Stoplight parrotfish

The stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) is a species of parrotfish inhabiting coral reefs in Florida, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Bermuda and as far south as Brazil.[1] Like most of its relatives, it is able to change sex. Its typical length is between 1 and 1.5 ft (30 and 46 cm), but it can reach 2 ft (61 cm) at times. It is normally found during the day at depths between 15 and 80 ft (4.6 and 24.4 m).[1]

Habitat: Stoplight parrotfish live on reefs, depending on the shelter, protection, and nutrition that densely packed coral provides. In particular, the 1-2 cm wide tubes of branched finger coral (Porites porites) provide shelter and protection as well as a food source (algae) to juveniles. Young may also be found in seagrass beds. Adults often reside in shallower waters, usually over reef bases. These fish are most commonly found in clear waters at depths of 3-50 m. These habitats are characterized by coral species such as staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata), and boulder star coral (Montastrea annularis). Population density tends to be greater in offshore reefs than inshore reefs, possibly due to increased fishing pressures inshore.

Initial phase


Sex Change and Reproduction: The colors of the stoplight parrotfish in the initial phase, when it could be either a male or a female, are dramatically different from those in the terminal phase, when it is definitely a male. In the initial phase, the stoplight parrotfish can rapidly change the color of the scales on its underside from red to white.[citation needed] Juveniles of both sexes are not dimorphic; following a post-settlement period, they enter their initial phase. The majority of juveniles are female. Once reaching sexual maturity, some individuals may enter terminal phase; these fish are always male (sometimes known as secondary males or super males) and exhibit the blue-green coloration described above. Individuals that were born as males (known as primary males) will remain males into their terminal stage. Sex changes often occur when population numbers are low, and only involve females becoming males.

Stoplight parrotfish reach sexual maturity by the age of four. Secondary males may reproduce as females before changing sex. Primary males will often mate in groups with one female, while secondary males will reserve females as their own to mate with. Secondary males maintain and defend a harem of multiple (usually 3-7) females, mating with them daily. Breeding occurs year round, more often during summer months. Fish travel from shallower reef waters to deeper areas to release eggs, where they are subject to less mechanical stress from water currents. After hatching, juvenile fish return to shallower reef areas.

Eggs are released and fertilized externally during spawning, in deep water reef areas. Eggs are approximately 1 mm in diameter and are negatively buoyant. Larvae, typically 1.4 mm long, hatch 25 hours after fertilization. Upon hatching, larvae have no eyes, coloring, or mouths. Within three days of hatching, a mouth appears; little else is known regarding development at this stage. [2]


Behavior: Stoplight parrotfish inhabit all portions of a reef, but they are most abundant at shallow reef bases and slopes. Most parrotfish live alone or in small groups. The majority of observed aggressive behaviors have been with other spotlight parrotfish, rather than with other species. These fish use their pectoral fins for vertical locomotion and their caudal fins for quick bursts of speed. Foraging occurs throughout the day, year-round, for an average of 12 hours a day; the most activity occurs at the height of the afternoon during the summer months (up to 14 hours a day), while activity during winter months decreases (to about 10 hours a day). Stoplight parrotfish sleep on the bottom at night. They also appear to not be phased by human divers and snorkelers until approached too closely or suddenly, making for great viewing on the many reefs and sea grass beds they inhabit.

The common name, stoplight, comes from the marked yellow spot near the pectoral fin, which is clearly visible only in specimens in the terminal phase.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Humann, DeLoach (2002). Reef Fish Identification - Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-878348-30-2. 
  2. ^ http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sparisoma_viride/

)

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