Overview

Brief Summary

Living Material

From mid-June to mid-July; the last two weeks in June are probably most favorable (Moulton, personal communication). Bumpus (1898) reported that eggs are also obtainable early in June.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Living Material

It is difficult to distinguish between Menidia menidia and M. beryllina solely on the basis of external morphology of the adults, although M. beryllina is somewhat smaller than M. menidia and has a colorless peritoneum, as opposed to the black peritoneum of M. menidia. The eggs of M. beryllina are somewhat smaller than those of M. menidia, and each has 8 to 14 attaching threads per egg, in contrast to the larger number (about 40) characteristic of the egg of M. menidia. All the attaching threads of the M. menidia egg are of approximately equal size, but Moulton (personal communication) reports that one thread of the egg of M. beryllina is notably larger (by a factor of two or three) than the remaining ones. Further details may be found in the book by Breder (1948).

During the breeding season, the females of both species are considerably plumper than the males, but other criteria for distinguishing between the sexes are somewhat unsatisfactory. Often, the females in a school of Menidia out-number the males (Kendall, 1901).

The adults were formerly very abundant in the Eel Pond, and some are still available there, as well as at other collecting sites (frequently in the same locales as Fundulus). Kendall (1901) reported that Menidia was common at that time about the wharves in Great Harbor, at Woods Hole.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Living Material

From mid-June to mid-July; the last two weeks in June are probably most favorable (Moulton, personal communication). Bumpus (1898) reported that eggs are also obtainable early in June.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Living Material

It is difficult to distinguish between Menidia menidia and M. beryllina solely on the basis of external morphology of the adults, although M. beryllina is somewhat smaller than M. menidia and has a colorless peritoneum, as opposed to the black peritoneum of M. menidia. The eggs of M. beryllina are somewhat smaller than those of M. menidia, and each has 8 to 14 attaching threads per egg, in contrast to the larger number (about 40) characteristic of the egg of M. menidia. All the attaching threads of the M. menidia egg are of approximately equal size, but Moulton (personal communication) reports that one thread of the egg of M. beryllina is notably larger (by a factor of two or three) than the remaining ones. Further details may be found in the book by Breder (1948).

During the breeding season, the females of both species are considerably plumper than the males, but other criteria for distinguishing between the sexes are somewhat unsatisfactory. Often, the females in a school of Menidia out-number the males (Kendall, 1901).

The adults were formerly very abundant in the Eel Pond, and some are still available there, as well as at other collecting sites (frequently in the same locales as Fundulus). Kendall (1901) reported that Menidia was common at that time about the wharves in Great Harbor, at Woods Hole.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults feed on copepods, mysids, shrimps, small squids and marine worms (Ref. 7251); also eggs of their own species (Ref. 5951). Preyed upon by striped bass (Ref. 7251) and bluefish (chief predators) (Ref. 5951). Oviparous, eggs are deposited on the substrate during a spawning run along the shore (Ref. 38155). Silversides are sometimes used as live food for trout (Ref. 7251).
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Distribution

southern Gulf of St. Lawrence region to Florida
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Western North Atlantic coast from Gulf of St. Lawrence to northeastern Florida.

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Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA.
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Western North Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Analsoft rays: 23 - 26
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm TL
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Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. reported age: 2 years (Ref. 12193)
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to 15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed).
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Type Information

Syntype for Menidia dentex
Catalog Number: USNM 18051
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): S. Baird
Year Collected: 1877
Locality: Mouth St. Johns River Florida., Florida, United States, North America
  • Syntype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1177 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 441 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 220
  Temperature range (°C): 2.442 - 23.660
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 17.036
  Salinity (PPS): 30.660 - 35.657
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.748 - 7.597
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 1.316
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.868 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 220

Temperature range (°C): 2.442 - 23.660

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 17.036

Salinity (PPS): 30.660 - 35.657

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.748 - 7.597

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 1.316

Silicate (umol/l): 0.868 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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nektonic
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Pelagic species, found on sandy seashores and in mouths of inlets.
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Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Sandy shoreline waters and mouths of inlets (Robins and Ray 1986).

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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 85409)
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Depth range based on 1177 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 441 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 220
  Temperature range (°C): 2.442 - 23.660
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 17.036
  Salinity (PPS): 30.660 - 35.657
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.748 - 7.597
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 1.316
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.868 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 220

Temperature range (°C): 2.442 - 23.660

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 17.036

Salinity (PPS): 30.660 - 35.657

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.748 - 7.597

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 1.316

Silicate (umol/l): 0.868 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Pelagic; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range on the surface. Inhabits sandy seashores and mouths of inlets.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits western Atlantic coast close to shore and in brackish-water marshes, intertidal creeks and estuaries; in coastal habitat, it stays in sandy or gravelly shores following tidal movements up and down the shores, sometimes living among the sedge grass Spartina in the high-tide periods. Parasites of the species include branchiuran Argulus funduli and copepod Ergasilus funduli (Ref. 5951).
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Comments: See Warkentine and Rachlin (1989).

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Copepods, mysids, shrimps, small squids and marine worms.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on copepods, mysids, shrimps, small squids and marine worms
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Life Cycle

Later Stages of Development

The localization of the egg attachment threads to a circumscribed area, together with the small number of oil droplets, facilitate study of this form, especially in early stages (Clark and Moulton, 1949). Thus, the eggs of Menidia have some advantages over those of Fundulus, for both study and experimentation. In addition, the spawning season of Menidia is usually somewhat more prolonged than that of Fundulus.<\p>

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Later Stages of Development

Two species (and probably several sub-species) of the common silversides are available in the Woods Hole, Mass., area. Menidia is characterized by the presence of a longitudinal silvery stripe, which runs along the flanks of the adult.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Later Stages of Development

The localization of the egg attachment threads to a circumscribed area, together with the small number of oil droplets, facilitate study of this form, especially in early stages (Clark and Moulton, 1949). Thus, the eggs of Menidia have some advantages over those of Fundulus, for both study and experimentation. In addition, the spawning season of Menidia is usually somewhat more prolonged than that of Fundulus.<\p>

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Later Stages of Development

Two species (and probably several sub-species) of the common silversides are available in the Woods Hole, Mass., area. Menidia is characterized by the presence of a longitudinal silvery stripe, which runs along the flanks of the adult.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Reproduction

Fertilization and Cleavage

The later development is like that of Fundulus, except that by four days, the eggs are clear and transparent, so that observation of the embryo is easier. The large oil droplets coalesce approximately 16 hours after insemination, to form a single drop. At six days, the eyes are well formed, the heart is beating and Kupffer's vesicle is clearly visible. The circulatory system in a 48-hour embryo is diagrammed by Clark and Moulton (1949). Shortly before hatching, the chorion becomes very soft and flabby.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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The Unfertilized Ovum

The sperm enters the egg through a micropyle. Polar bodies have not been observed in developing Menidia eggs (Moulton, personal communication), and the stage of the egg nucleus at the time of fertilization is not known. Formation of the germinal disc and cleavage are, in general, similar to the same processes in the Fundulus egg. During the course of development, the egg of Menidia becomes free within the chorion, so that the position of the attachment threads is no longer a criterion of the polar axis.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Breeding Season

The fish live well in aquaria supplied with running sea water, but it is important that they be transferred to such aquaria as soon as possible after collection.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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On the southern New England coast spawning occurs in May, June, and early July. Spawning may begin later in the Gulf of Maine.
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Fertilization and Cleavage

The later development is like that of Fundulus, except that by four days, the eggs are clear and transparent, so that observation of the embryo is easier. The large oil droplets coalesce approximately 16 hours after insemination, to form a single drop. At six days, the eyes are well formed, the heart is beating and Kupffer's vesicle is clearly visible. The circulatory system in a 48-hour embryo is diagrammed by Clark and Moulton (1949). Shortly before hatching, the chorion becomes very soft and flabby.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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The Unfertilized Ovum

The sperm enters the egg through a micropyle. Polar bodies have not been observed in developing Menidia eggs (Moulton, personal communication), and the stage of the egg nucleus at the time of fertilization is not known. Formation of the germinal disc and cleavage are, in general, similar to the same processes in the Fundulus egg. During the course of development, the egg of Menidia becomes free within the chorion, so that the position of the attachment threads is no longer a criterion of the polar axis.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Breeding Season

The fish live well in aquaria supplied with running sea water, but it is important that they be transferred to such aquaria as soon as possible after collection.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Menidia menidia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTCTTCTCAACCAATCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTCTACCTGGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCAGGAATGGTCGGAACAGCCCTA---AGTCTCCTTATCCGGGCCGAACTGAGCCAACCGGGCTCTCTTCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAATGTAATCGTCACCGCACATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTAATTCCCCTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCCGATATGGCTTTCCCCCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCCCCATCGTTCCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCAGGCGTTGAAGCCGGGGCAGGAACTGGGTGAACTGTTTATCCCCCCCTGTCTGGGAACCTCGCCCACGCTGGAGCGTCCGTGGATCTA---ACCATCTTCTCTCTTCATCTAGCAGGTGTCTCATCCATCCTGGGGGCTATCAATTTTATTACTACCATTGTTAACATGAAACCTCCAGCAATCTCACAGTACCAGACCCCGTTATTCGTCTGAGCTGTGCTGATCACTGCTGTGCTTCTCCTCCTCTCCCTCCCTGTCCTTGCTGCT---GGCATCACCATGCTACTCACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACATTCTTTGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATCCTCTACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGGCACCCGGAGGTTTATATCCTGATCCTCCCTGGATTCGGAATAATTTCTCACATTGTGGCCTACTACTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGCTATATGGGTATGGTGTGAGCTATGATGGCTATTGGCCTTCTGGGGTTTATTGTCTGAGCCCACCACATGTTTACAGTCGGAATGGATGTGGACACCCGAGCATACTTTACATCCGCTACAATGATTATTGCCATCCCCACGGGAGTTAAAGTCTTTAGCTGGCTA---GCTACACTCCACGGCGGA---GCTATTAAATGAGAAACCCCTCTACTCTGAGCCCTCGGTTTTATCTTCCTATTTACAGTCGGGGGCCTAACGGGAATTGTCCTGGCCAATTCATCCCTTGACATCGTTCTCCATGACACATATTATGTAGTAGCACACTTCCATTACGTC---TTATCTATAGGAGCTGTGTTCGCCATCGTCGCCGCCTTCGTCCACTGATTCCCCCTATTCTCAGGCTATACCCTTCACAGCACTTGAACAAAAATCCACTTCGGGATTATGTTCCTGGGAGTAAATTTAACTTTCTTCCCACAGCACTTCCTGGGTCTTGCGGGGATGCCTCGA---CGCTACTCTGACTACCCAGACGCCTACACG---CTGTGAAACACGGTCTCCTCTATTGGGTCACTAGTTTCACTCGTAGCCGTGATTATGTTCCTGTTTATTATCTGGGAAGCCTTCGCCGCAAAACGTGAGGTC---CTCTCGGTTGAACTGACCGCAACTAAT
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Menidia menidia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Methods of Observation

The egg of M. beryllina is approximately 0.75 mm. in diameter (Breder, 1948), while that of M. menidia is somewhat larger and measures about 1.2 mm. in diameter (Nichols and Breder, 1927). The eggs of both species are clear and somewhat yellowish in color, and two to three oil droplets (which later coalesce into one) are present. The attachment threads arise from a very circumscribed area of the chorion, 180 degrees from the future site of origin of the blastodisc (Moulton, personal communication).

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Preparation of Cultures

The attachment threads may be cut off close to the egg surface, using a sharp scalpel or razor blade. (See, also, the methods used for observation of Fundulus eggs.)

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Procuring Gametes

Eggs may be inseminated by the same general methods described for Fundulus. The cultures are best kept on the sea water table; a temperature of 18 to 19° C. is apparently most favorable (Moulton, personal communication).

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Care of Adults

Eggs and sperm are obtained by stripping the fish (see the section on Fundulus, p. 224 of this manual). Some immature eggs (which lack the characteristic attachment threads) are usually obtained from the females; such eggs are pale in color and smaller than ripe eggs, and do not tend to cling together as do mature eggs.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: low; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Methods of Observation

The egg of M. beryllina is approximately 0.75 mm. in diameter (Breder, 1948), while that of M. menidia is somewhat larger and measures about 1.2 mm. in diameter (Nichols and Breder, 1927). The eggs of both species are clear and somewhat yellowish in color, and two to three oil droplets (which later coalesce into one) are present. The attachment threads arise from a very circumscribed area of the chorion, 180 degrees from the future site of origin of the blastodisc (Moulton, personal communication).

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Preparation of Cultures

The attachment threads may be cut off close to the egg surface, using a sharp scalpel or razor blade. (See, also, the methods used for observation of Fundulus eggs.)

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Procuring Gametes

Eggs may be inseminated by the same general methods described for Fundulus. The cultures are best kept on the sea water table; a temperature of 18 to 19° C. is apparently most favorable (Moulton, personal communication).

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Care of Adults

Eggs and sperm are obtained by stripping the fish (see the section on Fundulus, p. 224 of this manual). Some immature eggs (which lack the characteristic attachment threads) are usually obtained from the females; such eggs are pale in color and smaller than ripe eggs, and do not tend to cling together as do mature eggs.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Wikipedia

Atlantic silverside

The Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, also known as spearing in the north east of the United States, is a small species of fish from the West Atlantic, ranging from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA. It is one of the most common fish in the Chesapeake Bay and in the Barnegat Bay. They are a common subject of scientific research because of their sensitivity to environmental changes.

The fish is about 15 cm (5.9 in) long, mostly silver and white. It eats smaller (biotic) animals and plants – small crustaceans, algae, annelid worms, shrimp, zooplankton, copepods, amphipods, squid, and insects.

The Atlantic silverside’s predators are larger predatory fish – striped bass, blue fish, Atlantic mackerel – and many shore birds, including egrets, terns, cormorants, and gulls.

The abiotic factors the Atlantic silverside needs to survive varies for populations of fish based on their geographical location. A general rule-of-thumb for the species includes an average temperature of 70 °F (21 °C), a salt content of the water ranging from 0 to 37ppt (Tagatz and Dudley 1961), and a well-mixed body of water to prevent hypoxic conditions.

The Atlantic silverside’s habitat is generally near the water’s edge. They are mostly found swimming in brackish waters, such as in the mouths of rivers and streams that connect to the ocean. These small schooling fish have been seen to gather in seagrass beds, which can harbor the nearly defenseless fish some form of shelter from predation as well as provide safe haven for spawning. During winter, most Atlantic silversides swim in deeper water to avoid cold/low temperature. During the summer, most are found in the shallows along the shoreline.

The Atlantic silverside’s defense is to hide in seagrass beds. They are also quick swimmers and their coloration of silver and a little white makes it confusing to predators to determine the direction the fish are heading. The silverside's strongest form of defense is the strength-in-numbers strategy, where fish will school in large numbers to diminish their chances of being the one picked off by a predator.

References[edit]

  • Tagatz, M. E., and D . L . Dudley. 1961 . Seasonal occurrence of marine fishes i n f o u r shore habitats near Beaufort, North Carolina, 1957-1960. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 390. 19 PP.
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Notes

Special comments

The development of Menidia eggs is slow; Moulton (personal communication) observed the following schedule, at a temperature of 18-19° C. The times are recorded from insemination.

StageTime
Germinal discBy 40 minutes
First cleavage60 minutes **
Eight to 32 cells3 hours, 50 minutes
Beginning of expanding blastula16 hours, 20 minutes
Early embryonic shield; germring halfway around yolk27 hours, 35 minutes
Beginning of gastrulation36 hours
Yolk plug; optic vesicles to closed blastopore39 hours, 35 minutes
Eyes formed; heart beating6 days
Hatching15 days

** From the paper by Bumpus (1898); the temperature is not specified.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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Special comments

The development of Menidia eggs is slow; Moulton (personal communication) observed the following schedule, at a temperature of 18-19° C. The times are recorded from insemination.

StageTime
Germinal discBy 40 minutes
First cleavage60 minutes **
Eight to 32 cells3 hours, 50 minutes
Beginning of expanding blastula16 hours, 20 minutes
Early embryonic shield; germring halfway around yolk27 hours, 35 minutes
Beginning of gastrulation36 hours
Yolk plug; optic vesicles to closed blastopore39 hours, 35 minutes
Eyes formed; heart beating6 days
Hatching15 days

** From the paper by Bumpus (1898); the temperature is not specified.

  • Breder, C. M., Jr., 1948. Field Book of Marine Fishes of the Atlantic Coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. (Rev. ea.).
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Clark, E., and J. M. Moulton, 1949. Embryological notes on Menidia. Copeia, 1949, no. 2, pp. 152-154.
  • Kendall, W. C., 1901. Notes on the silversides of the genus Menidia of the east coast of the United States, with descriptions of two new subspecies. Rep. of the Commissioner, U. S. Comm. of Fish & Fisheries, 27: 241-267.
  • Kuntz, A., and L. Radcliffe, 1917. Notes on the embryology and larval development of twelve teleostean fishes. Bull. U. S. Burl Fish., 35: 87-134.
  • Nichols, J. T., and C. M. Breder, Jr., 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. Zoologica, 9: 1-192.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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