Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults occur in rubble and gravel riffles, less often in sand-gravel runs of headwaters, creeks and small rivers. Also found in springs and their effluents and rocky shores of lakes (Ref. 1998, 10294). Feed mainly on aquatic insect larvae, but also on crustaceans, annelids, fishes, fish eggs, and plant material (Ref. 1998, 10294). Spawn in the spring (Ref. 1998). A male guards the cluster of eggs laid by different females (Ref. 1998). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) This species has highly disjunct eastern and western ranges. Arctic, Atlantic, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador and northern Quebec west to western Manitoba and south to the Susquehanna River drainage, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee River drainage, northern Georgia and Alabama; Missouri River and streams in the eastern Ozarks, Missouri; isolated populations on Atlantic and Gulf slopes in the extreme upper Santee (North Carolina), Savannah (South Carolina and Goergia), and Coosa (Georgia) river systems; upper Missouri, Colorado, and Columbia river basins, Alberta to New Mexico; endorheic basins in Utah and Nevada (Page and Burr 2011).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species has highly disjunct eastern and western ranges. Arctic, Atlantic, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador and northern Quebec west to western Manitoba and south to the Susquehanna River drainage, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee River drainage, northern Georgia and Alabama; Missouri River and streams in the eastern Ozarks, Missouri; isolated populations on Atlantic and Gulf slopes in the extreme upper Santee (North Carolina), Savannah (South Carolina and Goergia), and Coosa (Georgia) river systems; upper Missouri, Colorado, and Columbia river basins, Alberta to New Mexico; endorheic basins in Utah and Nevada (Page and Burr 2011).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographic Range

Mottled sculpin are widespread in North America, but there are several populations that are isolated from each other. Eastern populations are found throughout the Great Lakes region, north to Hudson Bay and throughout much of eastern Canada and south to northern Alabama and Mississippi. There is a smaller population in Missouri and a large western population in the northern Rocky Mountain states, from British Columbia and Alberta south to southern Nevada and northern New Mexico.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

North America: widespread with highly disjunct distribution in Canada and USA. The former Blue Ridge race of the Atlantic slope of the Appalchian Mountains is now recognized as a distinct species Cottus caeruleomentum.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographic Range

Mottled sculpin are widespread in North America, with a broadly disjunct range. Eastern populations occur throughout the Great Lakes region, north to Hudson Bay and throughout much of eastern Canada and south to northern Alabama and Mississippi. There is a disjunct population in Missouri and a large western population in the northern Rocky Mountain states, from British Columbia and Alberta south to southern Nevada and northern New Mexico.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Widespread in North America.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Mottled sculpin are small, stout fish with relatively flattened bodies. They have round snouts and have colors that help them to blend in with their habitat. They have brown to black mottling on their backs, sides, and fins and whitish bellies. They have 2 dorsal fins. There is a small black spot on the first part of the first dorsal fin, which helps to distinguish them from Neogobius melanostomus, and a larger spot on the back of the first dorsal fin. They do not have obvious scales, although they have a line of small prickle-like scales below their lateral line. Males are slightly larger than females and during the breeding season males have a dark band on the first dorsal fin and a broad, orange band on the edge of the fin.

Range length: 76 to 102 mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; male more colorful

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Mottled sculpin are small, stout fish with relatively flattened bodies. They have round snouts and are cryptically colored, with brown to black mottling on their backs, sides, and fins and whitish bellies. They have 2 dorsal fins, the first with 6 to 9 soft spines and the second with 17 to 19 rays. There is a small black spot on the first part of the first dorsal fin, which helps to distinguish them from round gobies, and a larger spot on the back of the first dorsal fin. They do not have obvious scales, although they have a line of small prickle-like scales below their lateral line, which is incomplete and ends just under the second dorsal fin. Males are slightly larger than females and during the breeding season males have a dark band on the first dorsal fin and a broad, orange band on the edge of the fin.

Range length: 76 to 102 mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; male more colorful

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length: 8 cm

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Maximum size: 150 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)); max. reported age: 2 years (Ref. 12193)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Syntype for Cottus bairdii Girard
Catalog Number: USNM 24843
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): S. Baird
Year Collected: 1853
Locality: Yellow Creek, Poland Ohio., Ohio, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Girard, C. F. 1850. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2nd meeting, 1849: 410.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: This sculpin inhabits clear, cold to warm (typically cool) headwaters, creeks, springs, small rivers, and lakes, with sand and gravel or (more typically) rocky substrate; habitat preference varies geographically; often it occurs under rocks or vegetative cover (Scott and Crossman 1973, Peden and Hughes 1984, Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). Male selects a spawning site under flat rock or ledge, in crevice among large gravel, among aquatic plants, or in tunnel (Becker 1983).

In Salt River watershed, Wyoming-Idaho, allopatric mottled sculpins (i.e., not sympatric with Paiute sculpins) occurred in spring streams that were wide and deep, dominated by fine substrate, and supported high densities of brown trout; mottled sculpins were absent from all tributaries on the eastern side of the drainage where streams had low summer water temperatures, high-gradient channels, and barriers that can influence upstream movements (Quist et al. 2004).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This sculpin inhabits clear, cold to warm (typically cool) headwaters, creeks, springs, small rivers, and lakes, with sand and gravel or (more typically) rocky substrate; habitat preference varies geographically; often it occurs under rocks or vegetative cover (Scott and Crossman 1973, Peden and Hughes 1984, Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). Male selects a spawning site under flat rock or ledge, in crevice among large gravel, among aquatic plants, or in tunnel (Becker 1983).

In Salt River watershed, Wyoming-Idaho, allopatric mottled sculpins (i.e., not sympatric with Paiute sculpins) occurred in spring streams that were wide and deep, dominated by fine substrate, and supported high densities of brown trout; mottled sculpins were absent from all tributaries on the eastern side of the drainage where streams had low summer water temperatures, high-gradient channels, and barriers that can influence upstream movements (Quist et al. 2004).

Systems
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mottled sculpin are found in gravel bottoms and sandy riffles of small headwaters, streams, and small rivers or in rocky shoreline areas of lakes, including the Great Lakes. The type of bottom may be less important than the presence of cover, which can be gravel, stones, or submerged vegetation. They can be found at up to 16 meters depth. Mottled sculpin seem to prefer depths of 0.1 to 0.5 meters and cold, clear water.

Range depth: 16 (high) m.

Average depth: 0.1 to 0.5 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

demersal; freshwater; depth range ? - 16 m (Ref. 1998)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mottled sculpin are found in gravel bottoms and sandy riffles of small headwaters, streams, and small rivers or in rocky shoreline areas of lakes, including the Great Lakes. The type of bottom may be less important than the presence of cover, which can be gravel, stones, or submerged vegetation. They can be found at up to 16 meters depth. Mottled sculpin seem to prefer depths of 0.1 to 0.5 meters and cold, clear water.

Range depth: 16 (high) m.

Average depth: 0.1 to 0.5 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 36 specimens in 3 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.085 - 111.3

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.085 - 111.3
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 0 - 16m.
Recorded at 16 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Occurs in rubble and gravel riffles, less often in sand-gravel runs of headwaters, creeks and small rivers. Also found in springs and their effluents and rocky shores of lakes. Feeds mainly on aquatic insect larvae, but also on crustaceans, annelids, fishes, fish eggs, and plant material (Ref. 1998). Spawns in the spring (Ref. 1998).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Comments: Benthic feeder; forages among rocks, mainly on immature aquatic insect larvae, especially mayflies, chironomid midges, and stoneflies; larger individuals also eat caddisflies and crayfish; crustaceans, annelids, fishes (including fish eggs) and plant material also may be eaten; may take swimming prey from water column (Scott and Crossman 1973, Becker 1983).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Food Habits

Mottled sculpin eat mainly aquatic insect larvae, such as Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera and Chironomidae, but also eat small crustaceans, such as Amphipoda, Copepoda, and Ostracoda, they also eat Hirudinea, smaller fish, fish eggs, and some aquatic plant material and algae.

Animal Foods: fish; eggs; insects; terrestrial worms; aquatic crustaceans

Plant Foods: leaves; algae

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Occurs in rubble and gravel riffles, less often in sand-gravel runs of headwaters, creeks and small rivers. Also found in springs and their effluents and rocky shores of lakes. Feeds mainly on aquatic insect larvae, but also on crustaceans, annelids, fishes, fish eggs, and plant material (Ref. 1998). Feeds on fish, plants and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 1998).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Food Habits

Mottled sculpin eat mainly aquatic insect larvae, such as mayfly nymphs, caddisfly larvae, stonefly larvae and midges, but also eat small crustaceans, such as amphipods, copepods, and ostracods, they also eat leeches, smaller fish, fish eggs, and some aquatic plant material and algae.

Animal Foods: fish; eggs; insects; terrestrial worms; aquatic crustaceans

Plant Foods: leaves; algae

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Mottled sculpin are very important intermediate predators in native aquatic ecosystems. They prey on small aquatic animals, mostly invertebrates, and form an important prey base for larger fish, such as Salvelinus fontinalis and Esox lucius. They may also help Salvelinus populations through their predation on Plecoptera, which each trout eggs and young. Mottled sculpin are hosts for the larvae of some native clam species, including Anodontoides ferussacianus and Alasmidonta viridis. Mottled sculpin may compete directly with Neogobius melanostomus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • slippershell mussel (Alasmidonta_viridis)
  • cylindrical papershell (Anodontoides_ferussacianus)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Predation

Mottled sculpin have been reported as prey by Salvelinus fontinalis, Salmo trutta, Esox lucius, Mergus merganser, and Nerodia sipedon. They are also likely prey of wading birds, such as herons.

Known Predators:

  • brook trout (Salvelinus_fontinalis)
  • brown trout (Salmo_trutta)
  • northern pike (Esox_lucius)
  • common mergansers (Mergus_merganser)
  • water snakes (Nerodia_sipedon)
  • herons (Ardeidae)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecosystem Roles

Mottled sculpin are very important intermediate predators in native aquatic ecosystems. They prey on small aquatic animals, mostly invertebrates, and form an important prey base for larger fish, such as brook trout and northern pike. They may also help trout populations through their predation on stoneflies, which each trout eggs and young. Mottled sculpin are hosts for the glochidia of several native clam species, including cylindrical papershells and slippershell mussels. Mottled sculpin may compete directly with round gobies, an invasive species in the Great Lakes.

Mottled sculpin are very important intermediate predators in native aquatic ecosystems. They prey on small aquatic animals, mostly invertebrates, and form an important prey base for larger fish, such as brook trout and northern pike. They may also help trout populations through their predation on stoneflies, which each trout eggs and young. Mottled sculpin are hosts for the larvae of some native clam species, including cylindrical papershells and slippershell mussels. Mottled sculpin may compete directly with round gobies, an invasive species in the Great Lakes.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Predation

Mottled sculpin have been reported as prey by brook trout, brown trout, northern pike, common mergansers, and water snakes. They are also likely prey of wading birds, such as herons.

Known Predators:

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Cottus bairdii is prey of:
Salvelinus fontinalis

Based on studies in:
Canada: Ontario, Mad River (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Cottus bairdii preys on:
Ephemera
Baetidae
Chironomidae
Cyclops
Chydorus
Ostracoda
Tanypodinae
Culicoides
Oligochaeta
Heptagenidae
Corixidae

Based on studies in:
Canada: Ontario, Mad River (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Density of 2-5/sq m was recorded in two studies. Home range was estimated at less than 50 m of stream in Montana, average less than 13 m in North Carolina. In Montana, longest upstream movement was 180 m, longest downstream movement was 153 m. (Becker 1983).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Based on courtship behaviors, visual and tactile cues are likely to be used by mottled sculpin in communication. They may also have good chemoreception, as in most fish. Mottled sculpin have a lateral line system that helps them to perceive water movements and pressure changes.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile

Perception Channels: visual ; vibrations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Communication and Perception

Based on courtship behaviors, visual and tactile cues are likely to be used by mottled sculpin in communication. They may also have good chemoreception, as in most fish. Mottled sculpin have a lateral line system that helps them to perceive water movements and pressure changes.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile

Perception Channels: visual ; vibrations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cyclicity

Comments: Most active at night in Lake Huron (Becker 1983). Prime feeding time is late evening, extending into night (Sublette et al. 1990).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Development

Mottled sculpin egg development depends on water temperature, at temperatures of 11 to 13 degrees Celsius eggs hatched in 17 days. Mottled sculpin larvae are about 5.9 mm in length when they hatch and leave the nest when they reach about 6.7 mm long and have used up their yolk sac, at about 14 days after hatching.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Male selects a nesting site under a rock of ledge. Male entices a female to enter the nest. Female deposits eggs on the upper surface of the rock and leaves or is driven out of the nest. Eggs are deposited by different females. The male guards the eggs from predators and maintains a natural current flow (Ref. 1998). Also Ref. 53335.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Development

Mottled sculpin egg development depends on water temperature, at temperatures of 11 to 13 degrees Celsius eggs hatched in 17 days. Mottled sculpin larvae are about 5.9 mm in length when they hatch and leave the nest when they reach about 6.7 mm long and have used up their yolk sac, at about 14 days after hatching.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Average recorded lifespan in mottled sculpin is 2 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
2 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan/Longevity

Average recorded lifespan in mottled sculpin is 2 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
2 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 6 years Observations: Life history in these animals varies according to environmental temperature (http://www.dlia.org/atbi/index.html).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Spawns in spring, the date depending on the locality. Temperature at time of spawning in New York was 10 C (Scott and Crossman 1973). Breeding season may last 2-3 months from time of nest selection to departure of young. Female spawns once per season. Male guards eggs (sometimes from multiple females); eggs hatch in 17 days at 11-13 C. Sexually mature in 2-3 years. (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Male mottled sculpin use courtship movements to attract females to their nest cavities. They shake their heads, raise their gills, and undulate their bodies to get the attention of females. The color and band on their dorsal fin also helps to attract females. When a female approaches, the male will bite her cheek, side, fins, or tail or else grab her by the head and pull her into the nest cavity. Once inside the nest cavity, the female turns upside down so that she can release her eggs onto the cavity ceiling. The male accompanies the female into the cavity and arranges himself next to her. The male's head and fins then become jet black and his body becomes pale. The male blocks the nest cavity entrance for several days so that the female remains inside. Males eventually attract several females into their nests to mate.

Mating System: polygynous

Male mottled sculpin begin to defend nest cavities in the spring. Nest cavities are areas beneath rocks or other debris at depths of about 22 cm and in areas with enough water flow to prevent silt build up. Nest entrances usually face upstream. Males attract females to their nests, where the females remain for a few days and lay their eggs. Males then remain in the nest cavities until the eggs hatch and the young fish leave the nest a few weeks after hatching. In Wisconsin, males are in nests from April to the end of May. Females are recorded to have from 111 to 635 (average 328) eggs at a time. Eggs hatch in about 17 days and young depart from the nest about 14 days after that. Sexual maturity is reached at adult sizes of 59.2 mm in males and 53.1 mm in females, sizes that can be reached within a year of hatching.

Breeding interval: Mottled sculpin breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Mottled sculpin breed in the spring. In Wisconsin breeding occurs from early April through May.

Range number of offspring: 111 to 635.

Average number of offspring: 328.

Average time to hatching: 17 days.

Average time to independence: 14 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

Male mottled sculpins guard clusters of eggs that have been laid by different females. They protect the eggs from predators until they hatch.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Male mottled sculpin use courtship movements to attract females to their nest cavities. They shake their heads, raise their gills, and undulate their bodies to get the attention of females. The color and band on their dorsal fin is probably also involved in courtship, as it only appears during the breeding season. When a female approaches, the male will bite her cheek, side, fins, or tail or else grab her by the head and pull her into the nest cavity. Once inside the nest cavity, the female turns upside down so that she can release her eggs onto the cavity ceiling. The male accompanies the female into the cavity and arranges himself next to her. The male's head and fins then become jet black and his body becomes pale. The male blocks the nest cavity entrance for several days so that the female remains inside. Males eventually attract several (average 3.3) females into their nests to mate.

Mating System: polygynous

Male mottled sculpin begin to defend nest cavities in the spring. Nest cavities are areas beneath rocks or other debris at depths of about 22 cm and in areas with enough water flow to prevent silt build up. Nest entrances usually face upstream. Males attract females to their nests, where the females remain for a few days and lay their eggs. Males then remain in the nest cavities until the eggs hatch and the young fish leave the nest a few weeks after hatching. In Wisconsin, males are in nests from April to the end of May. Females are recorded to have from 111 to 635 (average 328) eggs at a time. Eggs hatch in about 17 days and young depart from the nest about 14 days after that. Sexual maturity is reached at adult sizes of 59.2 mm in males and 53.1 mm in females, sizes that can be reached within a year of hatching.

Breeding interval: Mottled sculpin breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Mottled sculpin breed in the spring. In Wisconsin breeding occurs from early April through May.

Range number of offspring: 111 to 635.

Average number of offspring: 328.

Average time to hatching: 17 days.

Average time to independence: 14 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

Male mottled sculpins guard clusters of eggs that have been laid by different females. They protect the eggs from predators until they hatch.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cottus bairdii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 64 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGGCACAGCTTTAAGCCTCCTAATTCNAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCCCTTTTGGGGGACGACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCTTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATAATCGGAGGTTTCGGGAACTGACTCGTTCCCCTAATGATTGGCGCTCCTGATATGGCCTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATGAGTTTTTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCTTTTTTACTCCTCCTTGCCTCTTCGGGAGTCGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACCGGATGAACAGTCTACCCGCCCCTTGCCGGAAACCTCGCCCACGCAGGAGCCTCTGTTGACCTAACAATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTATCTCCTCTATTCTTGGGGCAATCAACTTTATCACAACTATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCTGCTATCTCACAATACCAGACCCCGCTCTTTGTATGATCTGTTCTTATTACTGCCGTCCTACTGCTTCTTTCCCTCCCCGTTTCTGCCGCCGGCATCACAATACTCCTGACAGACCGAAATCTTAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGGGACCCAATCCTTTATCAACATCNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cottus bairdii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 64
Specimens with Barcodes: 73
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations and locations, and large population size, and because the species probably is not declining fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mottled sculpin populations are not considered threatened currently. This is a widespread species with large populations. However, introduced Neogobius melanostomus may dramatically effect mottled sculpin populations through predation and competition.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: not evaluated

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mottled sculpin populations are not considered threatened currently. This is a widespread species with large populations. However, introduced round gobies may dramatically effect mottled sculpin populations through predation and competition.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Total adult population size is unknown but very large. This species is common in much of its range.

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Comments: No major threats are known.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Major Threats
No major threats are known.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no negative effects of mottled sculpin on humans. Some have regarded them as serious predators of Salmonidae eggs, but research suggests that their predation on trout eggs is usually on drifting eggs that won't develop anyway. Healthy mottled sculpin populations are used as an indicator of healthy trout populations because they are important prey of trout.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Healthy populations of mottled sculpin are used as an indicator of healthy Salvelinus populations, which are very important gamefish. Mottled sculpin have been demonstrated to have a positive effect on Salvelinus populations through preying on Plecoptera, which prey on trout young and eggs, and because they are important prey for large Salvelinus.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no negative effects of mottled sculpin on humans. Some have regarded them as serious predators of trout eggs, but research suggests that their predation on trout eggs is usually on drifting eggs that won't develop anyway. Healthy mottled sculpin populations are used as an indicator of healthy trout populations because they are important prey of trout.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Healthy populations of mottled sculpin are used as an indicator of healthy trout populations, which are very important gamefish. Mottled sculpin have been demonstrated to have a positive effect on trout populations through preying on stoneflies, which prey on trout young and eggs, and because they are important prey for large trout.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Mottled sculpin

The mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdii, is a freshwater sculpin (family Cottidae) found widely although unevenly throughout North America.

As the name suggests, its coloration is a combination of bars, spots, and speckles randomly distributed. The large pectoral fins are banded. The first dorsal fin is made of slender and somewhat soft spines, and just barely joins with the second dorsal. Maximum length is 15 cm.

It feeds primarily on aquatic insect larvae, but will also eat crustaceans, small fish, fish eggs, and some plant material. In turn, the sculpin is preyed upon by other fish, notably trout. Favored habitat is well-oxygenated and clear water, such as over gravel riffles in mountain streams, springs, and along rocky lake shores.

Spawning takes place during early winter and late spring. The male's head becomes darker, and he selects a protected nest site, such as under a rock or ledge. After courtship, the female enters the nest, turns upside down, and deposits her eggs on the ceiling, where they adhere. Typically several females will deposit eggs in a nest, then the male fertilizes and guards them, fanning the eggs with his pectoral fins.

Mottled sculpin occurrence is discontinuous in its range. It is widespread from the Tennessee River north to Labrador, while separate populations are found in the Missouri River, the Columbia River system in southern Canada, and the Bonneville system of the Great Basin.

Introduction[edit]

Mottled sculpins, Cottus bairdi, are a common fish throughout most of North America. The only area that mottled sculpin are provided limited protection is in New Mexico. [1] Mottled sculpins feed on a wide variety of organisms, including mollusks, snails, other mottled sculpins, and trout. Their diets are mainly made up of bottom-dwelling benthic insects.[2] The favored habitat of a mottled sculpin is one rich in macroinvertebrate prey, which usually occurs in fast riffle areas[3] with clear substrates and moderate velocities between 0.20m/s to 0.38m/s.[4] Spawning season for the mottled sculpin starts in April or May [5] with the males taking up residency in benthic rocks. Breeding season lasts for two to three months.[6] Clutch size can vary anywhere from 8 eggs to 148 eggs for females. Males can have up to 1587 eggs in their nest. Sexual maturity is thought to be reached at two years of age. Climate change does not seem to be a threat to this species since they inhabit a wide range of temperature gradient throughout the United States. However, one human activity that affects them is runoff from mining, which particularly is harmful to the newly hatched larvae and developing eggs.[7] Nothing is being done for current management for the mottled sculpin because it is a very abundant fish where it occurs. Future management could focus on the different metals that leak into the water from mining. The absence of the mottled sculpin from an area could tell us that the area has high levels of zinc, cadmium, or copper.[7]

Geographic distribution of species[edit]

The mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdii, is known to inhabit a large geographical range in North America. Their natural habitat range is from Northern Canada down to the Mobile and Tennessee River drainage systems. They are also commonly found in streams in the Rocky Mountains along with many steams found throughout the Midwest United States. The mottled sculpin has historically been found throughout all the environments listed above. For the most part, the geographical range of the mottled sculpin has not changed throughout the years due to it is being a resilient fish and because it has a large temperature gradient in which it can reside. However in a study by Besser and others in 2007, mottled sculpins have been absent in streams thought to be populated by them in the past due to the species being more sensitive to toxic levels of cadmium, copper, and zinc than species of salmonids.[7] Of these three metals zinc seems to be the most threatening to the mottled sculpin. One study found mottled sculpins to be the third most sensitive aquatic species to zinc. [8]Therefore the biggest threat to the species would be high mining areas or areas where coal is burned frequently.

Ecology[edit]

Mottled sculpins are known for living in fast moving current areas where they feed primarily on bottom dwelling aquatic insects. One study found that bottom dwelling aquatic insects make up 99.7% of the mottled sculpin's diet, with dipterous larvae and pupae being the most common type found.[2] The remaining 0.3% was made up of snails, fingernail clams, water mites, sculpin eggs and fish.[2] Thus the mottled sculpin is not a major threat to game fish though it has been found to eat trout eggs.[2][9] Sculpin are cannibalistic. Males are known to eat their young if one contracts some kind of virus or fungus. The males also eat small females. Therefore older females are usually chosen for mates over younger females.[2] [5]

The main predators of the sculpin are different species of game fish, such as brook trout, brown trout, northern pike, and smallmouth bass. All sculpin species are expected to coexist with species from the Salmonidae family.[9] Its main competitors are other small bottom dwelling fish, especially other sculpin species .[4] Female and immature mottled sculpins are commonly found in clean water rock substrates. On the other hand, males are commonly found in algae beds. The mean current velocity in which the fish is found is 0.28 m/s. They prefer to inhabit cool clear streams. They will tolerate warmer streams but do not prefer them like Cottus girardi.[4]

Life history[edit]

Mottled sculpin reach sexual maturity at the age of two. [10] The breeding season for mottled sculpin is during April and May.[5] At the beginning of the season the males will take refuge under flat-bottomed rocks, waterlogged wood or other rubble found in stream beds. In order to mate the female will come up to the males nest and lay her eggs there. The female chooses her mate on physical attributes. Since larger males pick out nesting sites with better resources qualities, the female's choice of the largest male indicates she is picking good genes in a mate and also a good environment for her young to grow up[11] After mating she either leaves or is chased away by the male. The males do this because females will eat the eggs right after spawning if the male does not run her off.[12] The males continue to protect the eggs until they have absorbed their yolk sac and are ready to distribute themselves.[13]

Mottled sculpins only mate once a year. The clutch size can vary anywhere from 8 eggs to 148 eggs for females. However within that year one male could mate with ten or more females[11] This leads to very large nest sizes. One study looked at twelve different nesting sites within a year and found that one nest can have anywhere from 54 to 1587 eggs with an average of 744 eggs per nest.[2] Mottled sculpins' average life span is six years.

Conservation[edit]

The mottled sculpin is currently not federal or state listed for being threatened or endangered. In New Mexico the species is given limited protection. The reason for the species receiving no current management plan is due to its high abundance all over North America. Its high prevalence is due the species tolerance' for all types of environment.

Although the species is not threatened anywhere in North America, it has received attention in recent areas in the Western United States due to its absence in some streams that are highly populated with trout species but not sculpins. This was odd since the two species usually coexist in similar habitats. The problem was that the streams absent of sculpin had high concentrations of zinc.[8] One study showed that mottled sculpin are the third most sensitive species to high levels of zinc.[8] The reason this occurring is because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses trout species to determine the water quality criteria (WQC) for zinc. [14] Therefore the WQC standards are not good enough to protect all species of fish. In southeast Minnesota there are plans to rebuild the sculpin population in streams where the water quality was once unfavorable for the species but has since been improved. The next step is to introduce 200 mottled sculpin a year until the population is showing signs of a comeback in the local streams.

However zinc is not the only metal threatening mottled sculpin populations. One study found mottled sculpins were also more sensitive to levels of copper and cadmium than other species of fish .[7] The leading causes of increase of these three metals into aquatic environments are from mining, the burning of coal, steel production, and smelting metals.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/fish_cattle/Mottled%20sculpin.pdf
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bailey, JE. 1952. Life history and ecology of the sculpin Cottus bardi punctulatus in southwerstern Montana. Copeia 1952(4): 243-255.
  3. ^ Rashleigh, B, GD Grossman. 2005. An individual-based simulation model for mottled sculpin (Cottu bairdi) in a southern Appalachian stream. Ecogological modeling 187: 247-258.
  4. ^ a b c Matheson, RE, GR Brooks. 1983. Habitat segregation between Cottus bairdi and Cottus girardi :an example of complex inter- and intraspecific resource partitioning. American Midland Naturalist 110(1): 165-176.
  5. ^ a b c Downhower, JF, L Brown, R Pederson, G Staples. 1983. Sexual selection and sexual dimorphism in mottled sculpins. Evolution 37(1):96-103.
  6. ^ Downhower, JF, LS Blumer. 1987. Seasonal variation in sexual selection in the mottle sculpin. Evolution 41(6): 1386-1394.
  7. ^ a b c d Besser, JM, CA Mebane, DR Mount, CD Ivey, JL Kunz. 2007. Sensitivity of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(8): 1657-1665.
  8. ^ a b c Brinkman, S., and J. Woodling. 2005. Zinc toxicity to the mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) in high-hardness water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24:1515-1517.
  9. ^ a b Dineen, C. F. 1951. A comparative study of the food habitats of Cottus bairdii and associated species of Salmonidae. American Midland Naturalist 46:640-645.
  10. ^ Hann, H.W. 1927. The history of the germ cells of Cottus bairdi Girard. Journal of Morphology and Physiology 43:427-497 .
  11. ^ a b Downhower, J.F., and L. Brown. 1980. Mate preferences of female mottles sculpins, Cottus bairdi. Animal Behavior 28:728-734.
  12. ^ Savage, T. 1963. Reproductive behavior of the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi Girard. Copeia 1963:317-325.
  13. ^ Downhower, J.F., and R. Yost. The significance of male parental care in the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi. American Zoology 17:936.
  14. ^ Woodling, J., S. Brinkman, and S. Albeke. 2002. Acute and chronic toxicity f zinc to the mottled sculpin Cottus bairdi
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Cottus bairdii as it has been used in the broad sense is a multi-species conglomerate; taxonomic subdivision of this assemblage is currently underway (D. Neely, pers. comm., 2000).

Morphologically distinct populations of C. confusus and C. bairdii, with some intermediate specimens, occur near the western border of the U.S. and Canada; thorough study of species limits is needed (Peden et al. 1989).

Markle and Hill (2000) recognized populations of the C. bairdii complex in Oregon as two species, C. bendirei and C. hubbsi, but the taxonomic and geographic scope of these taxa needs further study.

Formerly included in the order Perciformes; the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) followed Nelson (1984) in recognizing the order Scorpaeniformes as distinct from the Perciformes.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!