Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs mainly on sand bottom from inshore estuaries to about 180 m depth. Found occasionally over reefs. Feeds mainly on crustaceans and fishes. Used both for food and fish meal; other uses include for bait, pet food and fertilizer.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to northern Florida; rare north of Cape Cod (Robins and Rays 1986).

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Nova Scotia to northern Florida
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia in Canada to northern Florida in the USA; rare north of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, USA.
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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to northern Florida, USA; rare north of Cape Cod.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986.
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Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 450 mm TL
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Max. size

45.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 1,550 g (Ref. 4699)
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to 45.0 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 1,550.0 g.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986.
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Type Information

Type for Prionotus sarritor
Catalog Number: USNM 29675
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert
Locality: Charleston, S.C., South Carolina, United States, Atlantic
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Coastal water, bottom-dweller. Juveniles sometimes enter rivers.

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Found over sandy bottoms at depths to 180 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range ? - 180 m
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Depth range based on 1939 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 738 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 370
  Temperature range (°C): 5.459 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 23.955
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.379
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.425 - 6.494
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 1.571
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 16.914

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 370

Temperature range (°C): 5.459 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 23.955

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.379

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.425 - 6.494

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 1.571

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 16.914
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Reef-associated; brackish; marine. Depth range to 180 m. Found over sand bottoms from inshore estuaries to deeper water but occasionally over reefs.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs mainly on sand bottom from inshore estuaries to about 180 m depth. Found occasionally over reefs. Feeds mainly on crustaceans and fishes.
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Crustaceans and fishes.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on crustaceans and fishes
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

No information.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Prionotus evolans

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Prionotus evolans

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: occasionally; price category: medium; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
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