Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Common in the Gulf of California. Occasionally encountered in isolated reefs and sandy bottoms near the coast at depths of 46 to 90 m; uncommon in shallow waters (Ref. 89707).
  • Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings 2007 A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414)
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Description

  Common names: coney (English), hind (English), baqueta (Espanol), mero (Espanol)
 
Epinephelus acanthistius (Gilbert, 1892)


Gulf coney,     Rose coney,     Rooster hind


Body deep, robust; gill rakers 25-27; dorsal rays IX, 17; membranes of dorsal spines deeply notched, larger specimens with elevated 2nd  to 4th dorsal spines; anal rays III, 9; pectorals 18-19; flank scales rough; 61-64 scales on lateral line.

Adult:  rosy red (sometimes with brownish tinge); fins grading to dark brownish; a thin dark brown band above side of top jaw; Juvenile dark brown, with irregular blue spots on body, which form vertical lines at the rear of the body; several blue lines running from eye back and down across operculum; black moustache above top jaw. 


Maximum size, to at least 130 cm.

Inhabits rocky reefs and nearby sand patches.

Usually below 12 m and ranging to at least 111 m; juveniles can be in shallow water.

Southern Baja through the Gulf of California to Peru.
   
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Distribution

Range Description

Hyporthodus acanthistius is an eastern Pacific species with a distribution from southern California (USA) to central Peru.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: southern California in the USA, south to Peru.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 12 (S) - 111 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 18; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Size

Length max (cm): 130.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 1000 mm TL
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Max. size

100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222))
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished by the following characteristics: dark red or brown head and body; darker pectoral fins than body; tips of interspinous dorsal fin membranes darker than the rest of the membranes; prominent black moustache streak occurs above maxilla; depth of body contained 2.4-2.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.4 times in SL; convex interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, enlarged serrae at angle but covered by skin; distinctly convex upper edge of operculum (Ref. 89707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Type Information

Type for Cephalopholis popino
Catalog Number: USNM 100979
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): L. Walford
Year Collected: 1935
Locality: Mazatlan, Mexico, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Hyporthodus acanthistius is a demersal species found in reefs and sandy bottoms near the coast at depths of 46 to 90 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 46 - 90 m (Ref. 9342)
  • Heemstra, P.C. 1995 Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. p. 1565-1613. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9342)
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Depth range based on 56 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 31 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 145
  Temperature range (°C): 9.968 - 11.513
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.010 - 8.297
  Salinity (PPS): 34.271 - 34.793
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.952 - 6.375
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.408 - 0.664
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 5.948

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 145

Temperature range (°C): 9.968 - 11.513

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.010 - 8.297

Salinity (PPS): 34.271 - 34.793

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.952 - 6.375

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.408 - 0.664

Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 5.948
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 46 - 90m.
From 46 to 90 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hyporthodus acanthistius

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyporthodus acanthistius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Craig, M.T., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A., Rocha, L. & Heemstra, P.C.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Hyporthodus acanthistius is listed as Least Concern as it is a widespread species that, although heavily fished in some parts of its range, its overall decline appears to be less than 30%.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
Hyporthodus acanthistius is common in fisheries throughout the Gulf of California and in central Mexico, and is occasionally taken on the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico. There is only a single record of the species in southern California.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
General
Hyporthodus acanthistius is targeted by recreational fishing, but is only incidentally caught in commercial fishery in the southern portion of its range. In the Gulf of California, it is targeted by artisanal fishermen at a level constituting a major threat.

Fisheries-dependent data
Hyporthodus acanthistius was reported to comprise 1.2% of the total fish catch in Colima, Mexico, from 1983 to 1998 based on surveys of 5 to 20 boats (Espino-Barr et al. 2004). The same reference reports the total fishery of Colima to catch ~25 kg/day of fish based on the effort of ~1,000 boats working ~250 days/year. (by extrapolation 0.3 kg/day of H. acanthistius are taken).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Hyporthodus acanthistius may occur in some protected areas within its range, but it is likely that it occurs too deep to be protected by most coastal MPAs. In the Gulf of California, there needs to be regulation of harvests as the current level is unsustainable.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: DNA data indicate that (1) American Epinephelus species are not monophyletic, (2) Cephalopholis is monophyletic only with the inclusion of the morphologically distinct Paranthias, and (3) Mycteroperca is monophyletic only with the inclusion of the Indo-Pacific Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Craig et al. 2001).

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