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Overview

Brief Summary

WhyReef - Lifestyle

During the day, bluestripe snappers can be spotted swimming near the edges of the reef. At night they move away from the reef and look for food in soft, sandy areas. When they’re young, bluestripe snappers live in seagrass beds which keep them hidden from bigger fish that want to eat them.
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Comprehensive Description

Summary

"Distinctly coloured, Blueline Snappers have a bright yellow back and sides, with the lower sides and underside of head fading to white. Four bright-blue stripes run longitudinally on the side of the fish, with several faint greyish stripes on lowermost part of sides. All fins are yellow. Inspite of being one of the most common medium-sized fish in the reef, the demand for this fish species for their delicious flesh is so high that they have been introduced to Hawaii, and are fished in large numbers. Blueline snappers usually swim in large schools, or groups, around the reef, caves, and even shipwrecks. They have been known to steal food from other Hawaiian fishes and crowd them out of their homes on the reef."
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Biology

Inhabit coral reefs, occurring in both shallow lagoons and on outer reef slopes. Frequently found in large aggregations around coral formation, caves or wrecks during the day. Juveniles inhabit seagrass beds around patch reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on fishes, shrimps, crabs, stomatopods, cephalopods, and planktonic crustaceans. Also take a variety of algae (Ref. 4821). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
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WhyReef - Fun Facts

Bluestripe snappers are one of the most common medium-sized fish on a reef. They usually swim in large schools, or groups, around the reef, caves, and even shipwrecks. When it is time to mate, they sometimes dance in circles with their partners towards the surface of the water.
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Distribution

"Widespread in the Indo-Pacific from the Marquesas and Line Islands to East Africa, and from Australia to southern Japan. Range: 35°N - 35°S, 31°E - 134°W."
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia. Southeast Atlantic: East London, South Africa (Ref. 5484).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands (Kiribati) and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to off Western Australia, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Is
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 15; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7 - 8
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Size

Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed. Common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed.
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Maximum size: 400 mm TL
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Max. size

40.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4883))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits coral reefs, occurring in both shallow lagoons and on outer reef slopes. Frequently found in large aggregations around coral formation, caves or wrecks during the day. Feeds on fishes, shrimps, crabs, stomatopods, cephalopods, and planktonic crustaceans. Also takes a variety of algae (Ref. 4821).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Diagnostic

"Longitudinal rows of scales above lateral line appear to rise obliquely to dorsal profile, thode in front of and below anterior part of spinous dorsal fin sometimes parallel to lateral line. Scales on head beginning above middle of eyes or nearly so, temporal region scaly. Pre-opercular notch well developed and deep. Vomerine teeth in a triangular or inverted V-shaped patch. Longitudinal bands present on body. Body yellow or golden, with longitudinal light blue bands, bordered by brown lines. - (From Talwar and Kacker, 1984)"
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Dorsal profile of head steeply sloped. Preorbital width usually greater than eye diameter, but sometimes less in small specimens. Preopercular notch and knob well developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Generally bright yellow on upper two-thirds of the side and white ventrally, with a series of four lateral blue stripes. The fins are also bright yellow.
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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General Habitat

"The preferred habitat of this tropical species changes with age, with young fish schooling on sandy substrates, while larger fish are more solitary, and inhabit deep reef slopes to depths of 3 - 265m (usually 3-150m) below water level. Frequently found in large aggregations around coral formations, caves or wrecks during daylight hours, and in waters at a temperature of about 20°C - 28°C."
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 265 m (Ref. 11441), usually 30 - 150 m (Ref. 37816)
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Depth range based on 41 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 29 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.915 - 114
  Temperature range (°C): 22.185 - 29.214
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.049 - 9.599
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 36.148
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.230 - 4.802
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.783
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 12.243

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.915 - 114

Temperature range (°C): 22.185 - 29.214

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.049 - 9.599

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 36.148

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.230 - 4.802

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.783

Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 12.243
 
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Depth: 3 - 265m.
From 3 to 265 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Bluebanded snapper.  (Forsskal, 1775)  Attains 33 cm. Found on coral and rocky reefs to a depth of at least 60 metres. Red Sea and tropical Indo-West Pacific, south to East London.
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Trophic Strategy

"Omnivores. The diet of this fish species does not change significantly from year to year. There are few variations in diet between younger and adult stages. The Bluestripe Snapper has a varied diet, feeding on fishes, shrimps, crabs, stomatopods, cephalopods and planktonic crusteceans, as well as plant and algae material. Teleost fishes, juvenile crabs, megalopa and juvenile prawns are major parts of their diet. Isopods, amphipods, ostracods, polychaetes, stomatopods, asteroids, ophiuroids, gastropods, holothurians, hermit crabs, pteropods, lucifers, caprellids and cypris also contribute to the diet of L. kasmira."
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Inhabit coral reefs, occurring in both shallow lagoons and on outer reef slopes. Frequently found in large aggregations around coral formation, caves or wrecks during the day. Juveniles inhabit seagrass beds around patch reefs (Ref. 9710). Feed on fishes, shrimps, crabs, stomatopods, cephalopods, and planktonic crustaceans. Also take a variety of algae (Ref. 4821).
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Associations

"The Bluestripe Snapper is part of an unusual relationship of mimicry with the Goatfish, Mulloidichthys mimicus, whose colouration nearly exactly matches that of the Snapper. Goatfish are also known to school alongside this Snapper. This behaviour is attributed to predatory protection, with Goatfish being more preferred prey than Bluestripe Snapper. The parasitic isopod Elthusa raynaudii has been reported from Guam in the mouth of L. kasmira (Williams et al., 2000)."
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WhyReef - Menu

Bluestripe snappers eat crabs, shrimps, squids, and small fish. They also dine on microscopic animals called zooplankton, and turf algae. Because they eat both animals and plants, they are omnivores.
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Diseases and Parasites

Diseases

"The parasitic isopod Elthusa raynaudii has been reported in the mouth of L. kasmira in Guam (Williams et al., 2000). L. kasmira populations from Hawaii showed inflammation caused by an apicomplexan protozoan compatible with a coccidean in the fish spleen and kidney, and an epitheliocystis-like organism in the fish kidney (Work et. al. 2003)."
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

"During the day, bluestripe snappers can be spotted swimming near the edges of the reef. At night they move away from the reef and look for food in soft, sandy areas. When they’re young, bluestripe snappers live in seagrass beds which keep them hidden from bigger fish that want to eat them."
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Reproduction

"First maturity is observed in both male and female fish of size 17cm. About 50% maturity was observed in females of size 20cm. Most Blue-stripe snappers reach full maturity at a size of about 20-25cm. When it is time to mate, they sometimes dance in circles with their partners towards the surface of the water. Spawning occurs almost throughout the year in lower lattitudes with peak spawning activity reported in November-March in the Andaman sea. The fecundity of L. kasmira varies from 42,100 to 332,620. Eggs measure from 0.78 to 0.85 mm in diameter. They are bouyant (pelagic), spherical, smooth and transparent. They hatch in 18hr when temperatures reach 22 to 25°C. Before hatching, melanophores are seen along the dorsal side and on the postero-ventral part of the embryonal body."
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lutjanus kasmira

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Lutjanus kasmira

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 10 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTTTTCTCGACCAATCACAAAGACATCGGCACCCTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATAGTCGGCACGGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGAGCCCTTCTTGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTAATCCCCCTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTCCCTCCATCATTTCTTCTACTCCTAGCCTCCTCAGGCGTAGAGGCAGGAGCTGGAACTGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCCCTGGCAGGGAACCTCGCGCACGCAGGAGCATCAGTTGATTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTGCACCTGGCAGGTGTCTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCCATTAACTTCATTACCACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCAGCCATTTCCCAATATCAAACACCCCTATTCGTCTGAGCCGTTCTAATTACCGCTGTATTACTCCTTCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCCTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATGCTTCTCACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCCATTCTCTACCAACATCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAGGTATATATTTTAATTCTGCCCGGATTTGGGATGATTTCCCACATTGTTGCCTACTACTCTGGCAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGCTATATGGGCATGGTCTGAGCTATGATAGCAATTGGCCTTCTAGGATTTATTGTATGAGCCCACCACATGTTTACAGTGGGCATGGACGTAGACACACGAGCTTACTTCACATCCGCAACTATGATTATTGCCATCCCCACTGGAGTAAAAGTCTTCAGCTGACTT---GCAACCCTTCACGGAGGC---TCAATTAAATGAGAAACACCCCTACTGTGAGCCCTTGGGTTCATCTTCCTCTTTACTGTAGGAGGCCTGACAGGAATTGTCCTGGCCAACTCCTCACTAGACATTGTTCTCCACGACACATACTACGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTATGTC---CTGTCAATGGGAGCGGTATTTGCAATTGTTGCTGCCTTCGTTCACTGATTCCCCCTATTTTCAGGCTACACCCTTCATAGCACTTGAACAAAAATCCACTTTGGAGTGATGTTCGTTGGAGTCAACCTAACATTCTTCCCTCAGCATTTCCTGGGCCTAGCCGGAATGCCTCGA---CGATACTCAGACTACCCAGATGCCTACACT---CTTTGAAACACAATCTCATCTATCGGCTCCCTAATCTCCCTTGTGGCCGTAATCATGTTCCTATTTATCATTTGAGAAGCATTTGCTGCTAAACGTGAAGTT---ATGTCAGTTGAACTGACAATAACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

"Not evaluated. Fish species show moderate vulnerability (40 of 100), and medium resilience with minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years."
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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WhyReef - Threats

Since so many humans think bluestripe snappers are delicious, they have been introduced to Hawaii to be fished in large numbers. These bluestripe snappers have been known to steal food from other Hawaiian fishes and crowd them out of their homes on the reef. Though bluestripe snappers are very tasty, humans must be careful not to introduce too many of them into areas where other fish live; otherwise bluestripes will take away their food and shelter! We should also try not to fish so many of them out of the reef. Reefs are in danger, and that means so is the home of the bluestripe snapper!
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Management

"This species is fairly common in the commercial catches of the Andaman sea, where sea perches form a major part of the catch, contributing to about 20% of the total fish landed every year. Caught with handlines, bottom set gill nets and traps."
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Fisheries: commercial. Gamefish: yes. Aquarium: commercial. Price Category: High. Mainly consumed fresh.
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Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
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Risks

Risk Statement

Harmless to humans.
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Wikipedia

Bluestripe snapper

Lutjanus kasmira, the Common bluestripe snapper, (also known as the bluestripe sea perch or the blue-line snapper) is a species of snapper native to the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa and the Red Sea to the central Pacific Ocean. It is commercially important and also sought as a game fish. It can also be found in the aquarium trade.[1]

Description[edit]

The body is moderately deep in profile, with the dorsal profile of the head steeply sloped, having a well-developed preopercular notch and knob. Identifying morphological features include the number of gill rakers on lower limb of the first arch, which number 13 or 14, with the total rakers on the first arch numbering 20 to 22. The dorsal fin consists of 10 spines anterior to 14 or 15 soft rays, while the anal fin has three spines and seven or eight soft rays. The pectoral fins have 15 or 16 rays, with the caudal fin being slightly emarginate. The row of scales on the back rise obliquely above the lateral line, which contains 48 to 51 scales.[2] This species can reach a length of 40 centimetres (16 in) TL though most do not exceed 25 centimetres (9.8 in).[1]

The color is probably the most diagnostic feature of the fish, especially when alive or fresh from the water. The back and sides of the fish are bright yellow, with the lower sides and underside of head fading to white. Four bright-blue stripes run longitudinally on the side of the fish, with several faint greyish stripes on lowermost part of sides. All fins are yellow.[2]

Range and habitat[edit]

A school of bluestripe snapper in the Maldives
An individual from Diani, Kenya

The bluestripe snapper is one of the most widespread species of the Lutjanidae, ranging from the coast of Egypt bordering the Red Sea, south to Madagascar and east to India, China, Southeast Asia, Australia and a number of Pacific islands.[3]

Like many snappers, it inhabits coral reefs, occurring in both shallow lagoons and on outer reef slopes to depths of at least 60 m (200 ft), at depths reaching 180 m (590 ft) at the Marquesas Islands and 265 m (869 ft) at the Red Sea. In Hawaii, they spend some time over seagrasses and sandy substrates.[4] They frequently gather in large aggregations around coral formations, caves or wrecks during daylight hours.[2]

The preferred habitat of the species changes with age, with young fish schooling on sandy substrates, while larger fish are more solitary, and inhabit deep reefs.

Ecology[edit]

The bluestripe snapper is part of an unusual mimicry relationship with the goatfish, Mulloidichthys mimicus, whose colouration nearly exactly matches that of the snapper. The goatfish school alongside the snapper, with this behavior attributed to predatory protection. The goatfish are presumably a more preferred prey than bluestripe snapper.[5]

Diet[edit]

The bluestripe snapper has a varied diet, feeding on fishes, shrimps, crabs, stomatopods, cephalopods and planktonic crustaceans, as well as plant and algal materials. Diets vary with age, location and the prevalent prey items locally.[2]

Life history[edit]

Reproduction[edit]

The bluestripe snapper reaches sexual maturity at around 20 to 25 cm (7.9 to 9.8 in). Spawning occurs throughout most of the year in lower latitudes, with peak activity reported for November and December in the Andaman Sea. Its eggs measure from 0.78 to 0.85 mm (0.031 to 0.033 in) in diameter and hatch when temperatures reach 22 to 25 °C (72 to 77 °F).[2]

Relationship to humans[edit]

Introduction to Hawaii[edit]

Bluestripe snapper occupying a cave in Hawaii

In the 1950s, investigators from the Hawaii's Division of Fish and Game conducted marine fauna surveys and found the Hawaiian ichthyofauna was dominated by herbivorous fishes, which they concluded were "a useless end in the food chain".[6] Unlike many Pacific islands, Hawaii lacked any fish from the Serranidae or Lutjanidae families, so to increase recreational and commercial food fishing opportunities, and fill a perceived 'vacant ecological niche', collections of 11 species of snappers and groupers were imported from Mexico, Kiribati, the Marquesas Islands and Moorea and introduced to Hawaii.[7] Only three species thrived, dominated by the bluestripe snapper, now occupying many of the Hawaiian Islands.[8]

In the following years, fishers and ecologists raised concerns that the snapper would outcompete other fish for space and food, as well as prey upon them. Scientific investigation has not found evidence to support these claims with respect to competition for food or predation. Snappers may be competitively dominant over native yellow-fin goatfish, Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, for sheltering space on the reef.[7] This is likely only the case in situations where both are present in high densities.

A parasitic nematode, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, may have been introduced to Hawaiian waters when the fish were released. The addition of this parasite may have impacted native fishes, which may not have been subject to the species before the introduction of L. kasmira.[9]

The species has also failed to become as a food fish and commercial resource for the islands, because of low market prices. Since it competes with more commercially valuable fish, most fishers view it as a pest. Since 2008, Hawaii has conducted a series of spearfishing contests that targeted blue-stripes, along with blue-spotted groupers and black tail snappers with the intent of removing these fish from Hawaiian waters.[10]

Commercial fishery[edit]

The bluestripe snapper is commonly taken throughout its range by handlines, traps and gill nets. It is usually marketed fresh, and is common in the markets of many countries. It is one of the principal species in the Hawaiian handline fishery,[11] but as noted above, it fetches low prices at market.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Lutjanus kasmira" in FishBase. December 2013 version.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Allen, G. R. (1985). FAO Species Catalogue Vol. 6: Snappers of the World; An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Lutjanid Species Known to Date. Rome: FAO. p. 207. ISBN 92-5-102321-2. 
  3. ^ Carpenter, Kent E.; Volker H. Niem (eds.) (2001). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome: FAO. p. 3308. ISBN 92-5-104587-9. 
  4. ^ Friedlander, M. A.; J. D. Parrish; R. C. DeFelice (2002). "Ecology of the introduced snapper Lutjanus kasmiva (Forsskal) in the reef fish assemblage of a Hawaiian bay". Journal of Fish Biology 60 (1): 28–48. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2002.tb02386.x. 
  5. ^ Randall, J. E.; P. Gueze (1980). "The goatfish Mulloidichthys mimicus n. sp. (Pisces, Mullidae) from Oceania, a mimic of the snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Pisces, Lutjanidae)". Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section A Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 2 (2): 603–609. ISSN 0181-0626. 
  6. ^ R. K. Kanayama & M. Takata (1972). Introduction of marine game fishes from areas in the Pacific. Job 1 (Study XII) of Statewide Dingell-Johnson program. Project F-9-2 to the State of Hawai’i DFG. 
  7. ^ a b Schumacher, B. D.; J. D. Parrish (2005). "Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs". Biological Invasions 7 (6): 925–933. doi:10.1007/s10530-004-2983-6. ISSN 1387-3547. 
  8. ^ Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Eldredge, L. G. (2002). "Nonindigenous marine species at Waikiki and Hawai'i Kai, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Final report.". Bishop Museum Technical Report 25: 1–245. 
  9. ^ Font, William F.; Rigby, Mark C. (2000). "Implications of a new Hawaiian host record from blue-lined snappers Lutjanus kasmira: is the nematode Spirocamallanus istiblenni native or introduced?". Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 64: 53–56. ISSN 0893-1348. 
  10. ^ "Divers take bite out of invasive predatory fish". Maui News. August 17, 2010. Retrieved August 2010. 
  11. ^ Ralston, S.; Polovina, J. J. (1982). "A multi-species analysis of the commercial deep sea hand.line fishery in Hawaii, USA". Fishery Bulletin (Washington DC) 80 (3): 435–448. ISSN 0090-0656. 
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