Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit sandy to muddy bottoms (Ref. 7251). Prefer depths of 37 to 82 m at temperatures of 3-5°C (Ref. 6263). Feed mainly on polychaete worms and amphipods, shrimps, isopods and other crustaceans and occasionally small fish such as sand lance and capelin (Ref. 12232). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Southern Labrador to Chesapeake Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western North Atlantic.
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Northwest Atlantic: southern Labrador, Canada to Chesapeake Bay, USA.
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Western Atlantic: northern shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Labrador side of the Strait of Belle Isle, northern Newfoundland, and the Newfoundland Banks to the lower part of Chesapeake Bay. Most abundant on the western half of Georges Bank, the western side of the Gulf of Maine, on the Nantucket grounds, and off southern New England.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Bowering, W.R. and W.B. Brodie, 1991; Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Scarratt, D.J., 1996.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 640 mm TL
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Max. size

64.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 1,500 g (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 6263)
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to 64.0 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 1,500.0 g.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Bowering, W.R. and W.B. Brodie, 1991; Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Scarratt, D.J., 1996.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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An offshore species, found at depths of 36- 82 m over sandy and muddy bottoms.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 36 - 82m.
From 36 to 82 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 27 - 364 m (Ref. 5951), usually 36 - 91 m (Ref. 5951)
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Depth range based on 22530 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 19118 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 482
  Temperature range (°C): -2.072 - 23.867
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.149 - 22.553
  Salinity (PPS): 30.218 - 36.067
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 8.280
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.195 - 1.806
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 19.024

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 482

Temperature range (°C): -2.072 - 23.867

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.149 - 22.553

Salinity (PPS): 30.218 - 36.067

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.207 - 8.280

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.195 - 1.806

Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 19.024
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Demersal; marine; inhabits sandy to muddy bottoms and is most common at depths of 37 to 82 m and at temperatures of 3-5°C.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Bowering, W.R. and W.B. Brodie, 1991; Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Scarratt, D.J., 1996.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

It is preyed upon by cod and bluefish (Pomatosus saltatrix). Parasites of the species include 3 protozoans, 15 trematodes, 5 cestodes, 6 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans (Ref. 5951).
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Polychaete worms, amphipods, shrimps, isopods and other crustaceans and occasionally small fish such as sand lance and capelin.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Bowering, W.R. and W.B. Brodie, 1991; Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Scarratt, D.J., 1996.
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Associations

Known predators

Pleuronectes ferrugineus (Yellowtail flounder) is prey of:
Merluccius bilinearis
Gadidae
Hemitripterus americanus
Leucoraja erinacea
Leucoraja ocellata
Amblyraja radiata
Squalus acanthias
Lophius americanus
Pomatomus saltatrix
Chondrichthyes
Homo sapiens

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Known prey organisms

Pleuronectes ferrugineus (Yellowtail flounder) preys on:
Crangon
Mysidae
Pandalidae
Decapoda
Gammaridae
Hyperiidae
Caprellidae
Isopoda
Cumacea
Porifera
Cancer
Brachyura
Hydrozoa
Polychaeta
Ophiuroidea
Holothuroidea
Ostreoida
Bivalvia
Echinoidea
Ammodytes marinus
Actinonaias ellipsiformis

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Diseases and Parasites

Epitheliocystis. Bacterial diseases
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on polychaete worms, amphipods, shrimp, isopods, sand lance and capelin
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Spawns from January to August; larvae settle at depths of 10-20 m.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Bowering, W.R. and W.B. Brodie, 1991; Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998; Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986; Scarratt, D.J., 1996.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Limanda ferruginea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 27
Specimens with Barcodes: 90
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Limanda ferruginea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCCTATATCTCGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGGACAGGCCTA---AGTCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCTGGAGCTCTCCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAACGTAATCGTCACCGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTTATCCCATTAATA---ATTGGGGCCCCCGATATGGCCTTCCCTCGAATAAACAACATGAGTTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCCTTTCTCCTTCTCCTAGCCTCTTCAGGTGTTGAAGCCGGGGCGGGAACAGGTTGAACCGTTTACCCCCCATTAGCTGGGAACCTAGCACATGCCGGGGCATCCGTAGACCTC---ACAATCTTCTCTCTTCACCTTGCCGGAATTTCATCAATTCTGGGGGCAATCAACTTTATTACCTACATCATCAATATGAAACCAACAGCAGTCACTATGTACCAAATCCCACTATTTGTTTGAGCCGTACTAATTACCGCCGTTCTTCTTCTCCTTTCCCTTCCCGTCTTAGCCGCT---GGTATCACAATGCTACTAACGGACCCGCACCTAAACACAACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATCCTCTACCACCATTGG---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A1bd

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1996
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Sobel, J.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
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Threats

Vulnerable (VU) (A1bd)
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
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Wikipedia

Yellowtail flounder

The yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferruginea or Limanda ferruginea) is a species of fish in the Pleuronectidae family. It is found in Canada and the United States.

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