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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit sheltered rocky reefs (Ref. 559). Adults are usually with sponges (Ref. 48635). Juveniles openly on reefs looking like nudibranchs (Ref. 48635). Oviparous. Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Maldives (Ref. 30829) and Mauritius to Indonesia, Singapore, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Recently reported from New Caledonia (Ref. 11889).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Mariana Islands and Solomon Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11 - 12; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 6 - 7
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Size

Maximum size: 90 mm NG
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Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits rocky reefs (Ref. 559).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Characterized by numerous prominent wartlike protuberances on its skin and a large esca that mimics a tiny fish. Bony part of the illicium with numerous crossbands and approximately twice as long as the 2nd dorsal spine. Coloration is highly variable, ranging from cream to yellow, brown, or black with scattered dark circular spots and saddles or blotches ranging from white to pink, rust-red, or red. Heavily spotted individuals resemble A. pictus. Usually has red or orange margins on all fins and the first band across the body diverts to the posterior edge of the eye which distinguishes it from A. pictus (Ref. 48635).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 11 m (Ref. 37816)
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Depth: 0 - 11m.
Recorded at 11 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits rocky reefs (Ref. 559). A carnivore (Ref. 9137).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous. Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Antennarius maculatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antennarius maculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Warty frogfish

The warty frogfish, otherwise known as the clown frogfish or Antennarius maculatus, is a marine fish belonging to the family Antennariidae.

Description[edit]

The warty frogfish grows up to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Like other members of its family, it has a globulous, extensible body, and the soft skin is covered with small dermal spinules. The skin is covered with numerous small, wart-like protuberances. Its large prognathous mouth allows it to consume prey its same size. The coloring of the body is extremely variable because they always tend to match their living environments.

Frogfishes have the capacity to change coloration and pigment pattern in few weeks. However, the dominant coloration goes from white to black, passing through a whole range of related nuances such as cream, pink, yellow, red, and brown, often with dark, circular spots and/or with saddles. Some heavily spotted specimens can easily be confused with its closed relative Antennarius pictus. This characteristic can help to separate them: usually, A. maculatus has red or orange margins on all fins and sometimes a spike of the saddle blotch start posterior to the eye.[1]

The first dorsal spine, the illicium is modified and is used as a fishing rod. Its extremity is endowed with a characteristic esca (lure), this latter looks like a small fish with a pinkish to brownish coloration. The illicium is twice the length of the second dorsal spine and its often darkly banded. The second dorsal spine is practically straight and is mobile, and the third one is bent towards the back of the body; both are membranously attached to the head. They are well separated from each other and also from the dorsal fin.[2]

The pectoral fins are angled and help, with the pelvic fins, to move the fish on the bottom and to keep a stable position for ambush.

Distribution[edit]

A. maculatus lives in the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific area from Mauritius and Reunion Island of the center of the Indian Ocean to the western part of the Pacific Ocean.[1]

Habitat[edit]

The warty frogfish is found in sheltered rocky and coral reefs; adults are usually associated with sponges down to 20 metres (66 ft) deep.[1]

Feeding[edit]

As all frogfishes, A. hispidus is a voracious carnivore which can attack all small animals that pass within its "strike range", mainly fishes, but even sometimes congeners. Its prey can vary in size to close to its own size.[2]

Behaviour[edit]

Like other members of its family, it has a benthic and solitary lifestyle. They gather during mating period, but do not tolerate each other any more after the act of fertilization. The male can kill or eat the female she it stays close.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://eol.org/pages/205404/details
  2. ^ a b c Pietsch & Grobecker, ‘’Frogfishes of the world’’, Stanford University Press, 1987,ISBN 9780804712637
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