Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flounder (English), lenguado (Espanol)
 
Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882


Fringed flounder


Body relatively deep (50-57% of SL); head short, pointed (20-27% of SL); eyes on left side, top eye at top edge of head space between eyes very narrow, the ridge over each eye coalesced; mouth very small, 23-26% of head, ends under front edge of eye; jaws on blind side arched; most of teeth on blind side, in 1 row on each jaw, none enlarged; lower gill rakers 6-10; dorsal rays 75-89; anal rays 59-70; base of eye side pelvic on midline of body, 6 pelvic fin rays;  pectoral fin 50-75% of head length; tail fin with blunt angular point;  urinary papilla on blind side, immediately behind anus; lateral line starts at top corner of operculum, complete, relatively straight; scales small, rough, easily dislodged, without small accessory scales; 43-48 lateral line scales.



Dark brown, with narrow black scale margins; median fins dusky blackish; males often with dark pigment on rear half of blind side.


Size: to 22 cm.

Inhabits soft mud and sand bottoms.

Depth: 1-65 m.

Present in both the West Atlantic and eastern Pacific; in our area from central Baja California to the Gulf of California to Peru.
   
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Biology

Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 9330). Common in estuaries (Ref. 9330). Feeds on big, benthic invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9330). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9330).
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western Atlantic: Georges Bank to the Antilles and southern Brazil
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, New world (East Pacific + West Atlantic), Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Chesapeake Bay, USA to the Antilles and southern Brazil. Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Peru (Ref. 9330).
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Western Atlantic and eastern central Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (G) - 65 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 73 - 87; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 57 - 68
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Size

Length max (cm): 22.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330)); max. reported age: 1 years (Ref. 47359)
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
  • Reichert, M.J.M. 1998 Etropus crossotus, an annual flatfish species; age and growth of the fringed flounder in South Carolina. J. Sea Res. 40(3/4):323-332. (Ref. 47359)
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Type Information

Type for Etropus crossotus
Catalog Number: USNM 28124
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Gilbert
Locality: Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 65 m (Ref. 5217), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5217)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 1246 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 327 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 185
  Temperature range (°C): 11.619 - 27.601
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.133 - 10.594
  Salinity (PPS): 32.865 - 36.529
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.530 - 6.300
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.783
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 5.295

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 185

Temperature range (°C): 11.619 - 27.601

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.133 - 10.594

Salinity (PPS): 32.865 - 36.529

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.530 - 6.300

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.783

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 5.295
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 65m.
Recorded at 65 meters.

Habitat: demersal. Occurs on muddy and sandy bottoms from 30 to 65 m depth (Ref. 5217). Found usually in very shallow water. Common in estuaries (Ref. 9330). Juveniles migrate to coastal lagoons where they grow and develop (Ref. 9330). Feeds on big, benthic invertebrates and small fish (Ref. 9330). Also caught with encircling nets (Ref. 9330). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9330).
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic worms, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on big, benthic invertebrates and small fishes
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Etropus crossotus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Etropus crossotus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order
  • Hensley, D.A. 1995 Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Considered to be the same species in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (Nelson et al. 2004)

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