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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in coral-rich areas of deep lagoon and seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to at least 50 meters, Ref. 48637. Feeds on a variety of benthic organisms such as algae, echinoderms, fishes, mollusks, tunicates, sponges, and hydrozoans. Has a territorial nature. Eggs laid as one cluster in a shallow excavation on sand or rubble along channels. (Ref. 1602). Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9770).
  • Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9770&speccode=9 External link.
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Distribution

Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia.
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east to the Line, Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.
  • Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9770&speccode=9 External link.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 24 - 27; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 20 - 24
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in coral-rich areas of deep lagoon and seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to at least 50 m. Feeds on a variety of benthic organisms: algae, echinoderms, fishes, molluscs, tunicates, sponges, and hydrozoans. Has a territorial nature. Eggs laid as one cluster in a shallow excavation on sand or rubble along channels. (Ref. 1602). Marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9770).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Scales enlarged above the pectoral-fin base and just behind the gill opening to form a flexible tympanum; scales of caudal peduncle with 2 longitudinal rows of large anterior-projecting spines. No groove in front of eye. Caudal peduncle compressed. Color: dark green to dark brown with oblique curved orange lines on posterior head and body; an oblique band of narrow blue and orange stripes from around the mouth to below the pectoral fin; a large round black blotch around peduncular spines; rays of soft dorsal, anal and pectoral fins orange; caudal fin orange (Ref. 9770).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth: 2 - 50m.
From 2 to 50 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Orangestriped triggerfish.  (Mungo Park, 1797)  
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 50 m (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 237 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 205 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.15 - 99
  Temperature range (°C): 24.353 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.019 - 5.255
  Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.924
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.591 - 4.814
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.567
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 10.063

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.15 - 99

Temperature range (°C): 24.353 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.019 - 5.255

Salinity (PPS): 32.279 - 35.924

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.591 - 4.814

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.567

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 10.063
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in coral-rich (Ref. 58534) areas of deep lagoon and seaward reefs from the lower surge zone to at least 50 meters (Ref. 48637). Feeds on a variety of benthic organisms such as algae, coral, molluscs, worms, echinoderms, fishes, mollusks, tunicates, sponges, and hydrozoans (Ref. 54301). Has a territorial nature. They seek shelter in coral crevices when threatened or when retiring for the night.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Spawning behaviour may involve loose aggregations and nesting occurs in channels. The eggs are laid in a single spongy cluster in a shallow excavation in rubble or sand. Hatching occurs at night (Ref. 37816).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Balistapus undulatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Balistapus undulatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGACTCTTCTCAACTAATCATAAAGATATCGGCACCCTCTATTTGATTTTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGGATAGTAGGCACAGCCTTA---AGCTTGCTAATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCTCTTTTGGGTGAT---GACCAGATTTATAATGTGATCGTCACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTTGTCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGGGCCCCTGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTACCTCCCTCACTTCTCCTACTCCTAGCCTCCTCAAGCGTAGAAGCAGGGGCCGGTACCGGATGAACCGTCTACCCACCCCTTGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCAGGAGCCTCTGTAGACCTT---ACTATTTTCTCACTACACTTAGCGGGTATTTCATCCATCCTTGGCGCAATCAATTTTATCACCACTATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCCGCCATTTCACAGTACCAAACACCCCTATTTGTATGAGCCGTTCTAATTACAGCAGTACTTCTTCTCCTCTCTCTCCCCGTACTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATACTACTAACCGATCGAAATTTAAACACCACATTCTTTGACCCTGCCGGAGGGGGAGATCCAATCCTTTATCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGTCACCCTGAAGTCTACATTCTTATTCTCCCTGGCTTTGGTATAATTTCTCATATCGTTGCTTATTATTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTCGGTTACATGGGTATAGTCTGAGCTATAATGGCCATTGGACTCCTAGGGTTCATCGTCTGAGCCCACCACATGTTTACAGTTGGGATGGATGTTGACACCCGAGCCTACTTCACCTCAGCTACAATAATCATTGCAATTCCAACTGGTGTTAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTA---GCCACACTGCACGGAGGC---GCAATCAAATGAGAAACCCCACTCCTATGAGCCCTAGGCTTTATTTTCCTATTCACAGTAGGAGGCTTAACAGGTATTGTCTTAGCAAATTCATCACTCGACATTGTACTGCATGATACATATTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTT---CTCTCCATAGGAGCCGTATTTGCAATTGTCGCCGCCTTTGTCCACTGATTCCCACTGTTCTCTGGCTACACCCTGCACGACACATGAACGAAAATTCATTTTGGGGTTATATTTGTAGGAGTAAATCTAACATTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTGGGCCTAGCCGGAATGCCTCGA---CGCTACTCAGACTACCCTGATGCCTACACC---CTTTGAAACACAGTGTCCTCAATCGGGTCCCTAGTATCCCTAGTTGCGGTCATCCTGTTCCTATTCATTATTTGAGAAGCATTTGCAGCTAAACGAGAAGTC---TTATCCGTAGAACTTACCTCAACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Genomic DNA is available from 7 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Orange-lined triggerfish

Balistapus undulatus, known commonly as the orange-lined triggerfish, orange-striped triggerfish and undulated triggerfish, is a demersal marine fish belonging to the family Balistidae, the triggerfishes. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Balistapus.

Description[edit]

It grows up to 30 cm long.[1] Its body has a stock appearance, oval shape and compressed laterally. The head is large and is about one third of the body length. The mouth is small and terminal and it has strong teeth.[2]

The first dorsal fin has three spines, one of which is longer and stronger. It is erectile and kept in a dorsal furrow at rest. The second dorsal fin is similar in shape and size to the anal fin, which is symmetrically opposed to it. The pelvic fin is reduced to a ventral protrusion.[2]

The body is dark green with orange lines. The male loses the lines on his snout as he matures. There is a black blotch on the caudal peduncle, and the caudal fin is orange.[1]

Distribution & habitat[edit]

It is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific.[1] It inhabits coral reefs, lagoons and external reef slopes at depths up to 50 meters[1]

Feeding[edit]

The orange-lined triggerfish has a varied diet based on different benthic organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, hard coral tips, echinoderms, and fish.[1]

Behaviour[edit]

This triggerfish is diurnal, solitary, and territorial. It can be aggressive with other fish. It erects its first dorsal spine to intimidate opponents and predators.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Balistapus undulatus. EOL.
  2. ^ a b Lieske & Myers. Coral Reef Fishes. Princeton University Press. 2009. ISBN 9780691089959
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