Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found over rocky substrates and sandy area with algal growth. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Young mainly carnivorous on crustaceans, adults almost exclusively herbivorous (Ref. 4781), feed on seaweeds (Ref. 36731). Protandric hermaphrodite (Ref. 4781). Tasty when fresh, but easily softens and is not much esteemed (Ref. 3198).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay and Strait of Gibraltar to Sierra Leone, including Madeira, the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde; Congo to South Africa. Also present in the Mediterranean.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa including Madeira and Canary Islands; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 17; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 13 - 15
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 510 mm ---
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

51.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397))
  • Bauchot, M.-L. 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3397&speccode=2504 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Found over rocky substrates and sandy area with algal growth, at depths of about 70 m. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Young mainly carnivorous on crustaceans, adults almost exclusively herbivorous. Protandric hermaphrodite (Ref. 4781). Spawning occurs in March-April and September-November north of Cape Verde (Ref. 3688). An important foodfish.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Black spot at the pectoral fin base. Body relatively slender with 10 golden longitudinal stripes (Ref. 35388).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 5 - 70 m (Ref. 3688)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 11 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 44
  Temperature range (°C): 15.556 - 18.797
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.692 - 2.095
  Salinity (PPS): 37.152 - 37.969
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.194 - 5.538
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.102 - 0.229
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.178 - 3.615

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 44

Temperature range (°C): 15.556 - 18.797

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.692 - 2.095

Salinity (PPS): 37.152 - 37.969

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.194 - 5.538

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.102 - 0.229

Silicate (umol/l): 1.178 - 3.615
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 0 - 70m.
Recorded at 70 meters.

Habitat: benthopelagic. Strepie.  (Linnaeus, 1758)  Attains 45 cm, average much smaller. The large fishes are commoner in the cold water of the west coast; abundant in most rocky areas. Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic round South Africa to southern Mozambique. One of the best baits.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Found over rocky substrates and sandy area with algal growth. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Young mainly carnivorous on crustaceans, adults almost exclusively herbivorous (Ref. 4781), feeds on seaweeds (Ref. 36731). The Rhodophyta seem to be the most important component in the diet (59.6%), followed by Phaeophyta (24.8%) and Chlorophyta (15.8%) (Ref. 41885).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Sex change occurs at 25.0 cm TL and 3.75 years of age (Ref. 55367). Also Ref. 28504.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sarpa salpa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 27
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Sarpa salpa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: occasionally
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Salema porgy

Sarpa salpa, known commonly as the Salema porgy, is a species of sea bream, recognisable by the golden stripes that run down the length of its body, and which can cause hallucinations when eaten.[1] It is relatively common off the coasts of South Africa, Tenerife, Malta and Cyprus, but has occasionally been found as far north as Great Britain.[1] Males are typically 15 to 30 centimeters in length, while females are usually 31 to 45 centimeters.[2]

Sarpa salpa was reportedly consumed as a recreational drug during the time of the Roman Empire.[3] The fish became widely known for its psychoactivity following widely publicized articles in 2006, when two men ingested it at a Mediterranean restaurant and began to experience many auditory and visual hallucinogenic effects.[3] These hallucinations, described as frightening, were reported to have occurred minutes after the fish was ingested and had a total duration of 36 hours.

Ichthyoallyeinotoxism, or hallucinogenic fish poisoning, is common in other species of fish but not in Sarpa salpa, which is not normally psychoactive. It is, in fact, often served as a dish at seafood restaurants in the Mediterranean area. It is presently believed that the fish ingests a particular algae or phytoplankton which renders it hallucinogenic. The effects described are similar to those of indole tryptamine psychedelics.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fish that triggers hallucinations found off British coast. The Daily Telegraph May 13, 2009. Accessed May 27, 2013.
  2. ^ http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/1/128.full
  3. ^ a b c Pommier, De Haro (October 2006). "Hallucinatory Fish Poisoning (Ichthyoallyeinotoxism): Two Case Reports From the Western Mediterranean and Literature Review". Clinical Toxicology 2006, Vol. 44, No. 2 : Pages 187. Retrieved 2010-07-19. 


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!