Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Feeds on higher aquatic plants. Its flesh is tasty but very bony. One of the most important commercial fishes of China (Ref. 1441).
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Distribution

Asia: Basin of the Amur, from Blagoveshchensk to the very mouths. Sungari, Ussuri, Lake Khanka, Liao. China south to Shanghai and Ningpo.
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East Asia.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 550 mm TL
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Max. size

55.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1441)); max. published weight: 4,100 g (Ref. 1441); max. reported age: 17 years (Ref. 56557)
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Ecology

Habitat

Amur River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Amur River system. Benthopelagic river fish are found near the bottom of the water column, feeding on benthos and zooplankton

The persistence of mercury contamination in Amur River bottom sediments is a major issue, arising from historic cinnabar mining in the basin and poor waste management practises, especially in the communist Soviet era, where industrial development was placed ahead of sound conservation practises.

Other large benthopelagic river fish of the Amur Basin is the 200 cm yellowcheek (Elopichthys bambusa) and the 122 cm Mongolian redfin (Chanodichthys mongolicus)

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Yangtze River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Yangtze River system. Benthopelagic fish inhabit the water column niche immediately above the bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton.

The upper Yangtze basin consists chiefly of Paleozoic limestone and terrigenous sedimentary rock, with some granitic material. The most downstream element of the upper Yangtze basin is often termed the Sichuan Basin; here the Yangtze cuts through Triassic and Permian material before entering the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges area is a stretch of the Yangtze that runs approximately 660 kilometers, terminating at the site of the Three Gorges Dam. Prior to construction of the dam, the Three Gorges area was a site of exceptional natural beauty; after dam construction the gorge areas were filled with approximately 100 meters in depth of Yangtze water, and considerable amounts of the watershed were graded.

The lower Yangtze basin consists of anabranching river structures and Pleistocene coastal terraces. Prior to development of the Three Gorges Dam, the Yangtze Delta was replenished with a copious sediment load reaching the river mouth; however, the dam has now severely limited the natural flow and deposition of sediment to the delta region. Consequently, the integrity of the delta is been compromised, with scouring exceeding deposition, and the very stability of the delta is endangered.

Lower and middle basins of the Yangtze carry heavy pollutant loads. In the lower Yangtze basin nitrate levels are high, measuring at about 1000 tons per day at Datong; these levels accrue from high applications of chemical fertilizer applied and also considerable loadings of untreated sewage due to the large human population of the basin, with correspondingly little infrastructure for sewage treatment.

Heavy metal concentrations are also high in the lower Yangtze, with measurements of dissolved lead at 0.078 microgram/liter; cadmium (0.024 microgram/liter), chromium (0.57 microgram/liter), copper (1.9 microgram/liter), and nickel (0.50 microgram/liter). Levels of dissolved arsenic have been measured at 3.3 microgram/liter) and zinc at 1.5 microgram/liter), both notably higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5 respectively than other typical large world rivers. In Yangtze River suspended sediment, arsenic comprises 31 microgram/gram, lead comprises 83 microgram/gram, and nickel comprises 52 micrograms/gram of sediment content

A number of other benthopelagic associates are found in the Yangtze, including: Anabarilius polylepis, Bangana rendahli, Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus, Sinocyclocheilus grahami and Siniperca roulei. The demersal fish Silurus meridionalis also is found as a Yangtze River endemic species.

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Environment

benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater
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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on higher aquatic plants.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Assuming standard cyprinid reproduction. Replace ASAP.
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial
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Wikipedia

Parabramis pekinensis

The white Amur bream (Parabramis pekinensis) is a species of cyprinid freshwater fish, of the monotypic genus Parabramis.[1] It is native to eastern Asia, where found from the Amur River basin in Russia south to Ningpo and Shanghai in China.[2] It is an important food fish,[2] and has been introduced to regions outside its native range.

The species was originally described as Abramis pekinensis. The name is derived from the Greek word para, meaning "the side of ", and the Old French word breme, a type of freshwater fish.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). Species of Parabramis in FishBase. August 2011 version.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Parabramis pekinensis" in FishBase. June 2014 version.
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