Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits warm waters (Ref. 2683). Forms school close to the shore (Ref. 9987). Enters coastal lagoons and feeds on clupeids particularly Ethmalosa fimbriata. Reproduces in July to August (Ref. 5377). Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). Utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987).
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is present in the eastern Atlantic from the Canary Islands and Senegal south through the Gulf of Guinea to Baía dos Tigres, in southern Angola. It is rarely found in the northern Mediterranean Sea, along the coasts of France and Italy.
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Eastern Atlantic, concentrated in the Gulf of Guinea from the Canary Islands south to southern Angola; Western Mediterranean Sea (rare).
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Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands and Senegal to the Gulf of Guinea and Baía dos Tigres, Angola. Rarely found in the northern Mediterranean Sea, along the coasts of France and Italy. This species has been erroneously been considered as a synonym of Scomberomorus maculatus by many authors.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 15 - 18; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Analsoft rays: 17 - 20; Vertebrae: 46 - 47
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Size

Maximum size: 1000 mm TL
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Max. size

100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)); 98 cm FL (female); max. published weight: 6,000 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 27160)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Kromer, J.-L. 1994 Rio Grande de Buba: Bio-ecologie et parametres environnementaux. UICN/Ministere des peches de Guinee-Bissau. 119 p. (Ref. 27160)
  • Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
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Diagnostic Description

Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body covered with small scales. Lateral line gradually curving down toward caudal peduncle. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Swim bladder absent. Some large individuals with thin vertical bars. Anterior half of first dorsal fin and margin of posterior half of first fin black.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a pelagic, oceanodromous species that inhabits warm waters (Schneider 1990). It enters coastal lagoons and feeds on clupeids particularly Ethmalosa fimbriata (Fagade and Olaniyan 1973). It reproduces in July to August in Mauritania (Maigret and Ly 1986) and April to October in Senegal (Cayre et al. 1993); and February to September in Guinea-Bissau (Kromer et al. 1994).

Length at maturity at 50% was estimated in Senegal for males to be 33.1 cm fork length (FL) and 34.1 cm FL for females (Diouf 1996). In Guinea-Bissau, length at 50% maturity was 33.5 cm FL for females and 32.2 cm FL for males (Kromer et al. 1994).

Maximum Size is 100 cm FL. The all-tackle game fish record is of a 6 kg fish caught off Grand Bereby, Ivory Coast in 1998 (IGFA 2011).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 1 - 40m.
From 1 to 40 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 28173), usually 20 - 25 m (Ref. 28173)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 30 - 30
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is known from the eastern Atlantic, and is caught mainly with purse seines. Although catch landings are not regularly reported, there is no current indication of decline. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is taken throughout the Gulf of Guinea but catches are only reported from Ghana and Angola and range from 700 metric tonnes in 1978 to 4,412 metric tonnes in 1980, decreasing to 2,051 metric tonnes in 1981 (Collette and Nauen 1983). Reported worldwide landings range from a high of 5,060 tonnes in 1983 to 771 tonnes in 2005 (FAO 2009). However, these catch statistics are questionable because reporting is not consistent.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is caught with mostly in purse seines. In the Mediterranean it is only incidentally caught by pelagic long lines.



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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures. Better reporting, and more catch and effort information is needed for most species of small tunas in the Atlantic.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
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Wikipedia

West African Spanish mackerel

The West African Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus tritor, is a species of fish in the family Scombridae. Specimens have been recorded at up to 100 cm in length, and weighing up to 6 kg. Coloration is bluish-green on the back fading to silvery on the sides marked with about 3 rows of vertically elongate orange spots. It is found in the eastern Atlantic, along the Atlantic coasts of Africa from Canary Islands and Senegal to the Gulf of Guinea and Baía dos Tigres, Angola. It is rarely found in the northern Mediterranean Sea, along the coasts of France and Italy. It forms school close to the shore. It feeds on small fishes, especially clupeoides like sardines and anchovies. S. tritor has been erroneously been considered as a synonym of S. maculatus by many authors.

References[edit source | edit]

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