Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Does not migrate extensively, although some seasonal movement appears to occur off Trinidad. Feeds largely on fishes, with smaller quantities of penaeid shrimps and loliginid cephalopods. Most of the catch is consumed fresh, but in Brazil some is salted and some has been canned. Also utilized smoked and frozen; used for ceviche (Ref. 9987).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in the western Atlantic along the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts of Central and South America from Belize to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Western Atlantic: along the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts of Central and South America from Belize to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Literature records for Scomberomorus maculatus from the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Central and South America apply to Scomberomorus brasiliensis, which has erroneously been considered a synonym of Scomberomorus maculatus by many authors.
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Western Atlantic: Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coasts of Central America from Belize at least as far south as Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 17 - 19; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 19; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 16 - 20; Vertebrae: 47 - 49
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Size

Maximum size: 1250 mm FL
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Max. size

125 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 168)); max. published weight: 6,710 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Snout much shorter than rest of the head. Interpelvic process short and bifid. Lateral line gradually curving down toward caudal peduncle. Body entirely covered with small scales, no anterior corselet developed. Pelvic fins relatively short. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Swim bladder absent. Sides silvery with several rows of round yellowish bronze spots. First dorsal fin black.
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Type Information

Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217555
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Dry Osteological Specimen
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market., Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217554
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Glycerine With Bone Stain
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market, Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217553
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market, Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217552
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market, Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217557
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market., Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217556
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market., Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217551
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Dry Osteological Specimen
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1977
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market, Probably Caught Near Salinopolis, Brazil, Atlantic
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Paratype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 188424
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1963
Locality: Off northern coast of Brazil, coastal shelf between Amazon River mouth and Fortaleza., Brazil, Atlantic
Depth (m): 33 to 33
Vessel: Oregon
  • Paratype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Holotype for Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette et al.
Catalog Number: USNM 217550
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): B. Collette
Year Collected: 1975
Locality: Brazil, Purchased In Belem Market, Probably Caught Near Salinopolis, Para, Brazil, Atlantic
  • Holotype: Collette, B. B., et al. 1978. Fishery Bulletin. 76 (1): 273.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
S. brasiliensis is an epipelagic, neritic species, found up to 130 m depths, most commonly found on a depth range from 20–60 m (Nóbrega et al. 2009). It concentrates on coastal areas, and is common on rocky coasts, open beaches and islands. It does not migrate extensively, although some seasonal movement appears to occur off Trinidad (Sturm 1978). It tends to form schools and enters tidal estuaries. It feeds largely on fishes, with smaller quantities of penaeid shrimps and loliginid cephalopods.

This species spawns over the continental shelf, probably between 15 and 36 m of depth (Fonteles-Filho 1988). In Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, the rainy season influences maturation, and individuals maturate later during the rainy season, with a peak of reproduction from March to June (Ximenes de Lima et al. 2007).

In northeast Brazil, this species has a sex ratio of 4:1, with males being more abundant than females (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009). In North Brazil, Lima (2004) found a sex ratio of 1:2, favourable to females, which also showed a larger average length. For samples caught in Maranhão, reproduction takes place on the dry season, from June to November. In this region, length at first maturation is 41.1 cm for females and 44.3 cm for males, which would correspond to three years for females and four years for males (Lima 2004). However, in Rio Grande do Norte the length at first maturity of females has decreased from 41 cm in the 1970s to 28 cm (TL) in 2007 (Ximenes de Lima et al. 2007).

This species may live up to 13 years, reaching 1 m of total length (Fonteles-Filho 1988).

Maximum Size is 125 cm fork length (FL). The all-tackle angling record is a 6.71 kg fish caught off Managaratiba, Brazil in 1999 (IGFA 2011).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine
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Depth range based on 7 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3.25 - 33
  Temperature range (°C): 26.401 - 26.401
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.435 - 0.435
  Salinity (PPS): 37.096 - 37.096
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.706 - 4.706
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.108
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.517 - 2.517

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3.25 - 33
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Does not migrate extensively, although some seasonal movement appears to occur off Trinidad. Feeds largely on fishes, with smaller quantities of penaeid shrimps and loliginid cephalopods.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scomberomorus brasiliensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 18
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Scomberomorus brasiliensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GCCCATGCCTTTGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATAATCGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTTATTCCTTTAATG---ATCGGAGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTCTGACTCTTACCCCCCTCTTTCCTGCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCTGGGGTCGAAGCCGGAGCCGGAACTGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCACCCCTTGCCGGTAATCTAGCCCACGCTGGAGCGTCCGTCGATTTA---ACCATCTTCTCTCTTCATCTCGCAGGAATTTCTTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTTATCACAACAATCATTAACATGAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCCCAGTACCAGACCCCTTTATTTGTATGAGCAGTACTAATTACAGCTGTTCTACTCCTTCTATCACTCCCAGTTCTTGCCGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTTACAGACCGAAATCTAAATACAACCTTCTTTGACCCCGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATCCTGTATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGGCACCCCGAAGTCTATATTCTTATCCTTCCCGGATTTGGAATAATTTCCCACATTGTTGCCTACTACTCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTCGGATACATGGGTATGGTATGAGCCATGATGGCCATCGGCCTACTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCCCATCACATATTTACAGTAGGTATAGACGTAGACACACGAGCATACTTCACATCCGCAACTATAATCATCGCAATTCCAACCGGGGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCAACCCTTCACGGAGGT---GCCGTTAAATGAGAAACTCCCCTCCTTTGAGCTATCGGCTTCATCTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGAGGACTAACAGGAATCGTCCTAGCCAATTCATCTCTAGATATTGTTCTCCACGACACATATTACGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTATGTTCTC---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Graves, J., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is found from the Caribbean to Brazil. However, the majority of the catch for this species occurs in Brazilian waters. Stock assessments conducted in 2000 for the north and northeastern regions of Brazil indicate that this species is fully exploited. Studies have shown that the size at maturity, mean body size of catches, and total catch have decreased since the beginning of the fishery. However, it is unlikely that there has been a decline of 30% or more in its global population over the past three generation lengths (approximately 15–20 years). At present, the species is listed as Least Concern. There is an urgent need for a more recent stock assessment for this species in Brazil, and for more comprehensive assessments in the Caribbean portion of its range.
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Population

Population
This species is one of the most important marine commercial fishes in northeastern Brazil but most of the catch was previously reported as S. maculatus (Collette and Nauen 1983).

Reported worldwide landings for this species range from 300 mt in 1950 to 6,960 mt in 2006, with a peak of 9,510 mt in 1988 (FAO 2009). The 2008 preliminary catch of small tuna in the Atlantic amounted to 55,876 mt, of which 3,247 mt was estimated to be S. brasiliensis (STECF 2009).

There is only one stock in the Brazilian north and northeastern Exclusive Economic Zone (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009), however, no single stock assessment for this species in Brazilian waters has been conducted. In northeast Brazil, this species has a total mortality rate (Z) of 0,628 year-1, natural mortality= 0,30 year-1, fishing mortality= 0,33 year-1, exploitation rate = 0,52 and survival rate = 53,3% (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009). The theoretical maximum harvest rate (F) for sustainable exploitation for this species in Northeast Brazil was 0.60, which means that the species is being exploited at its maximum sustainable level. In Northeast Brazil, average annual biomass is estimated to be 4,237 t, and 35.9% of the stock is being exploited annually (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009). However there has been a decrease of average length of individuals caught, from 50.3–38.2 cm total length (TL) between 1998 and 2000 (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009), and by 33% from the 1960s to 2000 (Lucena et al. 2004). In North Brazil (e.g., Amapá, Pará and Maranhão), the population is also at its maximum exploitation limit (Lessa 2006, Souza et al. 2003).

The Caribbean represents a very small proportion of the species' range. In Trinidad, it is an important commercial and recreational species targeted by artisanal fisheries. A stock assessment in 1991 categorized this species in the waters of Trinidad as fully exploited (Henry and Martin 1992). The more recent assessment (Martin and Nowlis 2004) indicated that this species' biomass was below maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and that F was above Fmsy. However, this most recent stock assessment was based on two different models with some conflicting results. In general, there is uncertainty in these results, and the recommendation is continued fishing at current levels.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is fished throughout northern and northeastern Brazil by gillnets, hand-line and beach-seine fisheries. The decline in the abundance of this species over the last few years has been exhaustively cited by the fishermen who relate this decline in catch to overfishing. Two stock assessments from north and northeastern Brazil (Souza et al. 2003, Nobrega and Lessa 2009) indicate that the species is fully exploited, and the decrease in average body length and catches in both areas suggest that overfishing is occurring. Juveniles up to two years old are often caught on northeastern western coast in small meshed nets for sardine (Opisthonema oglinum) (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009). This species is also caught as bycatch.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation actions for this species in Brazil. However, as it is estimated that one third of individuals caught in northeastern Brazil are immature, it is recommended to regulate mesh size (Nóbrega and Lessa 2009). It is also recommended that newer stock assessments be conducted.

In Trinidad, fishing effort is not controlled. There are regulations to specify the maximum length and depth and minimum mesh size for gillnets (11cm). Similar regulations are imposed for seines, with maximum dimensions for the nets and minimum mesh size requirements. Individuals less than 305 mm may not be taken or sold (Martin and Nowlis 2004).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Serra Spanish mackerel

The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, is a species of fish in the family Scombridae. Specimens have been recorded at up to 125 cm in length, and weighing up to 6,710 g. It is found in the western Atlantic, along the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts of Central and South America from Belize to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Literature records for S. maculatus (Atlantic Spanish mackerel) from the area apply to S. brasiliensis (Serra Spanish mackerel), which has erroneously been considered a synonym of S. maculatus by many authors. It feeds on small fish, squids/cuttlefish, shrimps/prawns, and isopods.

References


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