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BiologyAdults occur in oceanic and coastal waters, commonly found in shallow water, with larger individuals up to 350 m depth (Ref. 9283). Also found in brackish water and occasionally ascend rivers (Ref. 9283). They form medium-sized to big schools, but large adults may be solitary (Ref. 9283). They feed mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps and other invertebrates (Ref. 9283). Often makes a grunting sound when captured (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are often found in river estuaries (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh, frozen, smoked and salted or dried; also utilized as fishmeal and a source of oil (Ref. 9283).