Overview

Comprehensive Description

Buglossidium luteum (Risso, 1810)

Sea of Marmara : 25200-701 (1 spc.), 17.04.1992 , Front of Goenen Stream , trawl , 33 m, L. Eryilmaz . Aegean Sea : 25200-496 (1 spc.); 25200-501 (10 spc.) .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 53-53, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Demersal on sandy bottoms of continental shelf and slope. Feeds on a wide range of bottom-living organisms, mainly crustaceans (copepods, amphipods, cumaceans), bivalve mollusks, and polychaetes (Ref. 3397).
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Description

 A flatfish with a characteristic head shape. Below the rounded snout on the lower edge of the head is a small semi-circular mouth, which gives the fish a permanently sad expression. Both eyes are on the right side of the body. The dorsal fin starts in front of the eyes, runs the whole length of the body and is joined to tail fin. The anal (ventral) fin is shorter, starting further back but also joined to the tail fin. The pectoral fins are very small. Solenettes can vary their colour to suit the background. The general colour is a light sandy brown with darker spots. The solenette reaches up to 13 cm in length.Spawning takes place in spring and summer in specific areas at depths of 40-60 m. It feeds on small, bottom-living animals, especially small crustaceans and worms but also molluscs and fish.
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Distribution

Range Description

Buglossidium luteum may be found in the eastern Atlantic from Iceland and Scotland to the Mediterranean. Its range includes the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.
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Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Scotland and southern Norway to Morocco.
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Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Scotland southward, also North Sea, Kattegat and Baltic. Mediterranean Sea: including Adriatic, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 65 - 78; Analsoft rays: 49 - 63
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm ---
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Max. size

15.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)); max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 32766)
  • Deniel, C. 1990 Comparative study of growth of flatfishes on the west coast of Brittany. J. Fish Biol. 37(1):149-166. (Ref. 32766)
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Diagnostic Description

Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged, anterior nostril on eyed side with a backward-pointing tube, reaching to vertical through front margin of lower eye. Pectoral fins on blind side reduced to a single long and 1-2 short fin rays. The supra-temporal branch of lateral lie without tubular scales. Vertebrae 36-38. Scales rectangular, intercanalicular striae strongly curved.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Buglossidium luteum is a demersal species that occurs at depths ranging from less than 1 m to 450 m. This small flatfish species prefers shallow, sandy and muddy bottoms near river outflows, though it avoids the low salinity waters of large estuaries (Amara et al. 2004). Its diet varies seasonally, but often includes bivalves, polychaeta, amphipoda and, according to some studies, copepoda (Henrique et al. 2002). It does not make any pronounced migrations. It is most abundant at depths of 10 - 40 m (Quero et al. 1986).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 5 - 450m.
From 5 to 450 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 5 - 450 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 40 m (Ref. 4710)
  • Muus, B.J. and J.G. Nielsen 1999 Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark. 340 p. (Ref. 35388)
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Depth range based on 25587 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 13578 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 271
  Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 12.274
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 16.868
  Salinity (PPS): 30.162 - 35.544
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.262 - 6.677
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.247 - 0.890
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 11.419

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 271

Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 12.274

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 16.868

Salinity (PPS): 30.162 - 35.544

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.262 - 6.677

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.247 - 0.890

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 11.419
 
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 Found on sandy and muddy bottoms. The solenette lives at depths of 5-40 m but is occasionally found in much deeper water.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Buglossidium luteum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GCCCTTTACCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAAGCACAGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTGATCCGTGCTGAACTAAGCCAGCCTGGCTCTCTACTAGGGGAT---GACCAGATTTATAATGTTATCGTTACCGCACACGCCTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTCATGGTAATGCCAATCATAATTGGAGGCTTCGGGAACTGACTGATCCCTCTAATA---ATCGGAGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCGCCTTCCTTCCTACTTCTTCTTACCTCCTCTGTCGTCGAGGCTGGGGCTGGTACGGGGTGGACTGTTTACCCCCCTCTATCAAGCAACCTCGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCTGTAGATTTA---ACAATTTTCTCCCTTCATCTAGCAGGAATTTCATCAATCCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTTATAACAACAGTCTTCAATATAAAACCAGCCACAATAACGATTTACCAAATGCCTTTATTTGTATGGGCAGTCCTAATCACGGCCTTACTCCTACTTCTTGCCCTTCCCGTTCTGGCTGCA---GGAATTACAATACTTTTAACCGACCGAAACCTGAACACATCCTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGAGACCCCATCCTTTACCAA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CTC---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ATT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Buglossidium luteum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Munroe, T.A. & Herdson, D.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Buglossidium luteum has been assessed as Least Concern. Though this species is occasionally taken as by-catch by shrimp trawlers, it is considered abundant in areas of its range. Harvesting of this species as by-catch is not thought to occur across the entire range of this species. The deepwater nature of this species is also likely to afford this species some protection from harvesting and coastal pollution. Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is needed to determine if there are any significant declines.
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Population

Population
Buglossidium luteum is considered abundant in areas of its range including the Portuguese coast (Carbral et al. 2002).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
While this species is not fished commercially, trawls targeting other species, such as the shrimp Crangon crangon, take Buglossidium luteum as by-catch (Berghahn and Purps 1998). However, this is not considered to be a major threat to this species at this time as it is not affecting the entire population.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Buglossidium luteum.

Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer 1999 FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Namibia. FAO, Rome. 250 p. (Ref. 27121)
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Wikipedia

Solenette

The solenette or yellow sole, Buglossidium luteum, is a species of flatfish in the family Soleidae, and the only member of its genus. It is characterized by its small size, low-slung semi-circular mouth, and regularly placed dark fin rays. A common and widespread species, it is native to sandy bottoms in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It is of little commercial value.[1][2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The solenette occurs in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Iceland and Scotland southward, as well as in the North Sea, Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. It also occurs in the Mediterranean Sea, including the Adriatic Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosphorus. It has been reported from a range of 5–450 m (16–1,476 ft), but is rare in very shallow waters.[3] The highest abundances occur at depths of 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in the English Channel and at 20–35 m (66–115 ft) in the Bay of Biscay. Their distribution is not restricted by sediment type as in some other flatfish species.[4] In the Solway Firth, there is a general movement offshore in the winter.[5]

This species has more specific habitat requirements than other widespread Atlantic flatfish such as the European plaice, common sole, and common dab. It is concentrated in waters moderately influenced by estuary outflows, at a salinity of 29-33 ppt, and is absent from the mouths of the largest estuaries where the salinity is lower. The solenette is often found on or half-buried in muddy or muddy-sandy substrates.[4]

Description[edit]

The smallest of the soles in European waters, the solenette usually measures 10–13 cm (3.9–5.1 in) long and attains a maximum length of 15 cm (5.9 in).[1][4] It has an oval, compressed, slightly elongate body with both eyes on the right side of the head. The snout is rounded with the upper jaw slightly elongated to form a "beak". The diameter of the upper eye is less than the distance between it and the front of the head. The dorsal fin begins on the anterior profile of the head, with 65-78 fin rays. The anal fin contains 49-63 fin rays, and the caudal fin is connected to the dorsal and anal fins by a small membrane. The pectoral fin on the eyed side is small, with 3-5 fin rays, and the one on the blind side is reduced to 1 long and 1-2 short fin rays.[3][6]

The lateral line scales number 55-70, and are rectangular in shape with short, strongly curved intercanalicular striae. The coloration of the eyed side is variable, frequently yellowish or light brown with or without darker blotches or spots. The dorsal and anal fins are sandy with every 5th or 6th (occasionally 4th or 7th) fin ray dark for the majority of their lengths.[6] The solenette can change its color to better match its background.[2]

Biology and ecology[edit]

Adult solenette feed on a variety of small benthic organisms, mainly crustaceans (copepods, amphipods, and cumaceans), bivalve molluscs, and polychaete worms.[3] The diet of the solenette varies by geographical region; solenette from the English Channel feed on a larger variety of prey than those from the Bay of Biscay, and take proportionally more polychaetes as opposed to crustaceans and molluscs for the Bay of Biscay.[4] Feeding activity peaks in summer and declines markedly in winter.[5]

The solenette spawns in February in the Mediterranean, from March to June in the Bay of Biscay, and in July and August in the western English Channel, North Sea, and western Ireland.[3] The eggs are small and distinguishable from those of other soles by having only a few large oil globules. The larvae hatch at about 2 mm long, with metamorphosis beginning at about 7 mm long and being complete at 8-9 mm. In appearance the larvae are similar to those of the common sole, but with fewer large stellate chromatophores. There is also a distinct patch of pigment on the ventral abdominal wall, and the distinct shape of the head is also apparent in the early stages.[7]

In the North Sea, there are no special nursery areas, with juveniles and adults occurring in the same areas.[8] The young take up a benthic lifestyle at 12 mm long.[6] Most growth occurs in the first year of life and continues at a relatively low and constant rate afterwards. Both sexes mature in their third year, with males growing faster than females and females attaining a larger ultimate size.[5] The maximum reported age is 13 years.[1]

Relationship to humans[edit]

The solenette is too small to be of commercial interest and is usually discarded by fishers. It is caught as bycatch in trawls, sometimes in large numbers, and historically has often been confused with the young of the common sole.[9][10][11] Between 1985 and 2006, the range of the solenette increased significantly in the North Sea, which is believed to be a consequence of rising sea bottom temperatures.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2008). "Buglossidium luteum" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  2. ^ a b Ruiz, A. (2007). Buglossidium luteum. Solenette. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Retrieved on December 2, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d Quéro, J.-C., Desoutter, M. and Lagardère, F. (1986). "Soleidae". In Whitehead, P.J.P, et al.. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. ISBN 92-3-002309-4. 
  4. ^ a b c d Amara, R., Mahé, K., LePape, O. and Desroy, N. (2004). "Growth, feeding and distribution of the solenette Buglossidium luteum with particular reference to its habitat preference". Journal of Sea Research 51 (3-4): 211–217. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2003.08.002. 
  5. ^ a b c Nottage, A.S.; Perkins, E. J. (1983). "The biology of solenette, Buglossidium luteum (Risso), in the Solway Firth". Journal of fish biology 22 (1): 21–27. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb04722.x. 
  6. ^ a b c Lythgoe, J and G (1991). Fishes of the Sea: The North Atlantic and Mediterranean. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-12162-X. 
  7. ^ Nichols, J.H. (1976). "Soleidae of the Eastern North Atlantic". In Fraser, J.H. Fiches D’Identification du Zooplancton. Conseil International pour 1’Exploration de la Mer. 
  8. ^ Baltus, C.A.M. and Van der Veer, H.W. (November 1995). "Nursery areas of solenette Buglossidium luteum (Risso, 1810) and scaldfish Arnoglossus laterna (Walbaum, 1792) in the southern North Sea". Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 34 (1-3): 81–87. doi:10.1016/0077-7579(95)90016-0. 
  9. ^ Newman, E. and Harting, J.E. (1907). Zoologist: A Monthly Journal of Natural History. J. Van Voorst. 
  10. ^ Herdman, W.A. and Dawson, R.A. (1902). Fishes and Fisheries of the Irish Sea, and Especially of the Lancashire and Western Sea-fisheries District. George Philip & Son. 
  11. ^ Murie, J. (1903). Report on the Sea Fisheries and Fishing Industries on the Thames Estuary. Waterlow Bros. & Layton. 
  12. ^ Hiddink, J.G. and ter Hofstede, R. (2008). "Climate induced increases in species richness of marine fishes". Global Change Biology 14 (3): 453–460. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01518.x. 
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