Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit ponds, streams and rivers, preferring stagnant and muddy water of plains (Ref. 41236). Found mainly in swamps, but also occurs in the lowland rivers. More common in relatively deep (1-2 m), still water. Very common in freshwater plains (Ref. 4515, 57235). Occur in medium to large rivers, brooks, flooded fields and stagnant waters including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Survive dry season by burrowing in bottom mud of lakes, canals and swamps as long as skin and air-breathing apparatus remain moist (Ref. 2686) and subsists on the stored fat (Ref. 1479). Feed on fish, frogs, snakes, insects, earthworms, tadpoles (Ref. 1479) and crustaceans (Ref. 2847). Undertake lateral migration from the Mekong mainstream, or other permanent water bodies, to flooded areas during the flood season and return to the permanent water bodies at the onset of the dry season (Ref. 37770). During winter and dry season, its flesh around coelomic cavity is heavily infested by a larval trematode Isoparorchis hypselobargi. Other parasites infecting this fish include Pallisentis ophicephali in the intestine and Neocamallanus ophicepahli in the pyloric caecae (Ref. 1479). Processed into pra-hoc, mam-ruot, and mam-ca-loc (varieties of fish paste) in Kampuchea (Ref.4929). Perhaps the main food fish in Thailand, Indochina and Malaysia (Ref. 2686). Firm white flesh almost bone-free, heavy dark skin good for soup and usually sold separately (Ref. 2686). In Hawaiian waters the largest specimen taken reportedly exceeded 150 cm (Ref. 44091). Very economic important on both cultures and captures throughout southern and southeastern Asia (Ref. 57235).
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is recorded from Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand and southern China. Possibly present in Bhutan.
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Southern Asia: Native range Pakistan to China, Thailand, Malayasia and Indonesia; introduced elsewhere.
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Asia: Pakistan to Thailand and south China. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
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Southern Asia: Native range Pakistan to China, Thailand, Malayasia and Indonesia; introduced elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 38 - 43; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 23 - 27
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Size

Maximum size: 1000 mm SL
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Max. size

100.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2686)); max. published weight: 3,000 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Body sub-cylindrical; head depressed; caudal fin rounded (Ref. 2847). The dorsal surface and sides is dark and mottled with a combination of black and ochre, and white on the belly; a large head reminiscent of a snake's head; deeply-gaping, fully toothed mouth; very large scales (Ref. 44091).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Inhabits swamps, freshwater ponds, streams and tanks in the plains; prefers stagnant muddy waters and grassy tanks. It breeds in the rainy season.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 20; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 2686), usually 1 - 2 m (Ref. 4515)
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 9
  Temperature range (°C): 26.857 - 26.857
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.462 - 0.462
  Salinity (PPS): 34.532 - 34.532
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.572 - 4.572
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.380 - 0.380
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.568 - 2.568

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 9
 
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Migration

Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits ponds, streams and rivers, preferring stagnant and muddy water of plains (Ref. 41236). Found mainly in swamps, but also occurs in the lowland rivers. More common in relatively deep (1-2 m), still water. Very common in freshwater plains (Ref. 4515). Occurs in medium to large rivers, brooks, flooded fields and stagnant waters including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Survives dry season by burrowing in bottom mud of lakes, canals and swamps as long as skin and air-breathing apparatus remain moist (Ref. 2686) and subsists on the stored fat (Ref. 1479). Feeds on fish, frogs, snakes, insects, earthworms, tadpoles (Ref. 1479) and crustaceans (Ref. 2847). Also feeds on smaller herbivorous fishes, enters the flooded forest in high water (Ref. 13497). Undertakes lateral migration from the Mekong mainstream, or other permanent water bodies, to flooded areas during the flood season and returns to the permanent water bodies at the onset of the dry season (Ref. 37770). During winter and dry season, its flesh around coelomic cavity is heavily infested by a larval trematode Isoparorchis hypselobargi. Other parasites infecting this fish include Pallisentis ophicephali in the intestine and Neocamallanus ophicepahli in the pyloric caecae (Ref. 1479).
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Diseases and Parasites

Yellow Grub. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Turbidity of the Skin (Freshwater fish). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Trichodinosis. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Taphrobothrium Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Skin Flukes. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Procerovum Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Procamallanus Infection 6. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Procamallanus Infection 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Posthodiplostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Posthodiplostomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Polyonchobothrium Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Piscicola Infestation (Piscicola sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phyllodistomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Paracamallanus Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 4. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Opegaster Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neodiplostomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neocamallanus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neocamallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Lernaea Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Lopez, N.C. 2001 Parasitic crustaceans in fishes from some Philippine lakes. p.75-79. In C.B. Santiago, M.L. Cuvin-Aralar and Z.U. Basiao (eds) Conservation and ecological management of Philippine lakes in relation to fisheries and aquaculture. SEAFDEC, Aquacult. Dept., Iloilo,Phil., PCAMRD, Los Baños, Lag., & BFAR Q.C. Phil.,187p. (Ref. 45120)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=45120&speccode=2 External link.
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Isoparorchis Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Haplorchis Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Haplorchis Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Haplorchis Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Gnathostoma Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Fish Louse Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Fish louse Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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False Fungal Infection (Epistylis sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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False Fungal Infection (Apiosoma sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Euclinostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Euclinostomum Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome. Viral diseases
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Echinocephalus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Contracaecum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Clinostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Clinostomum Infestation (metacercaria). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Clinostomoides Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Cercaria Disease (e.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Centrocestus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Camallanus Infection 11. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Camallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Bothriocephalus Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anchorworm Disease (Lernaea sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anchor worm Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anchistrocephalus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allogomtiorema Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Aeromonosis. Bacterial diseases
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Acanthogyrus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Breeds in ditches, ponds and flooded paddy fields. Young shoal at the surface and are guarded by the male parent (Ref. 54793), hiding below the surface water (Ref. 1479). In captivity, as soon as the male bends its body close to the female during mating, milt is released following the release of the eggs (Ref. 45162).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Channa striata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 29
Specimens with Barcodes: 67
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Channa striata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 48 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CACATTGTGGCCTACTATTCAGGGAAAAAA---GAGCCTTTCGGCTATATAGGCATGGTCTGAGCCATGATGGCCATTGGCCTACTAGGTTTTATCGTCTGAGCCCACCATATGTTTACTGTTGGCCTTGATGTAGACACACGAGCTTACTTTACATCAGCCACTATAATCATCGCAATTCCAACAGGGGTCAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCCACCCTCCACGGAGGG---GCCATCAAATGAGAGACCCCTCTCTTGTGAGCCCTGGGATTTATTTTCTTATTTACAATTGGGGGCTTAACCGGAATCGTATTAGCCAATTCTTCTCTTGACATTATTCTCCACGATACATACTACGTAGTCGCCCACTTC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CAA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Chaudhry, S.

Reviewer/s
Britz, R., Dey, S.C., Jha, B.R. & Allen, D.

Contributor/s
Molur, S.

Justification
As currently understood, Channa striata is a species complex. It is a widespread species with no known major widespread threats and is currently assessed as Least Concern, however the species requires taxonomic review and it should be re-assessed when this has been undertaken.
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Population

Population
There is no information on the population and its trends for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This is a species complex and requires taxonomic revision.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
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Wikipedia

Channa striata

The snakehead murrel (Bengali: শোল), (Tamil: விறால்) Channa striata, is a species of snakehead fish. It is also known as the common snakehead, chevron snakehead, and striped snakehead. It is native to South and Southeast Asia, and has been introduced to some Pacific Islands (reports from Madagascar and Hawaii are misidentifications of C. maculata).[3][4] In Assam it is locally known as xol.

Introduction[edit]

It grows up to a meter in length, though because of fishing, this size is rarely found in the wild. It has a widespread range covering southern China, Pakistan, most of India, southern Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and most of Southeast Asia. It has more recently been introduced to the outermost parts of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Mauritius. Reports beginning in the early 20th century that it was introduced into the wild in Hawaii, particularly the island of Oahu, as well as later reports from Madagascar, are the result of misidentifications of C. maculata.[3][4] The only currently confirmed Hawaiian establishment of C. striata is on a commercial fish farm. Popular media and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service were perpetuating this apparent mistake as recently as 2002.[5][6] Early- to mid-20th century reports and texts referring to its introduction in California appear to be the result of a misunderstanding.[7]

It is an important food fish in its entire native range, and is of considerable economic importance. Adults are dark brown in colour with faint black bands visible across its entire body. Males and females both help to construct a nest out of water vegetation during breeding time. Eggs are guarded by both parents. Fry are reddish orange and are guarded by both parents until they turn greenish brown at around 5–6 cm.

It is common in freshwater plains, where it migrates from rivers and lakes into flooded fields, returning to the permanent water bodies in the dry season, where it survives by burrowing in the mud.

It preys on frogs, water bugs, and smaller fish, and it will attack anything moving when breeding.

Nomenclature[edit]

Common snakeheads are known as Nga-mu in Manipuri, xol in Assamese, shol (শোল) in Bengali, varaal (വരാല്‍)) in Kerala, India; viral (Tamil: விரால்) in Tamil Nadu, India and Sri Lanka; pla chon (Thai: ปลาช่อน) in Thailand;[8] gabus in Indonesia; haruan in Malaysia;[9] and haloan, aruan, haruan, bulig, dalag, or "mudfish" in the Philippines.

Gastronomy[edit]

Snakehead fish packed with lemon grass and lime leaves ready for steaming

A curry made with this fish and tapioca is a delicacy in Kerala. In Indonesia, common snakeheads are a popular type of salted fishes in Indonesian cuisine. In the Philippines, they are commonly served either fried, grilled, or with soup.

Dishes using this fish eaten with rice is very popular among Bengalis of Bangladesh and West Bengal.

Common snakeheads are very popular in Thai cuisine, where they are prepared in a variety of ways. Grilled fish is a common food item offered by street vendors or in kaeng som. Pla ra, a fermented fish sauce popular in northeastern Thai cuisine, is made by pickling common snakehead and keeping it for some time. Also, a Chinese sausage is prepared with common snakehead flesh in Thailand.[10]

Immune System[edit]

Worldwide inland fish culture industry is suffering from massive economic losses due to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) and fish based pathogens. The available literature indicate that infection from fish pathogens like bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria), fungus (Aphanomyces invadans) and viruses can cause stunted growth and severe mortality in the C. striatus. Channa striatus rely on their innate immune components to fight against these infections. Some of the immune molecules that have been characterized in Channa striatus includes Chemokine, Chemokine receptors, Thioredoxin, Superoxide dismutase, Serine Protease, Cathepsin,[11] Lectin.

Medical use[edit]

The Bathini Goud Brothers in Hyderabad, India, promote the swallowing of live murrel fish and herbs as an asthma treatment, although the high court ruled they cannot call it "medicine". They give it free to children on Mrigasira Nakshatra. No evidence indicates it is clinically effective, and children's rights campaigners have called for it to be banned.[12][13]

Folklore among Chinese in South China and Southeast Asia has it that eating haruan fish helps in postsurgical wound healing.[14]

References[edit]

Channa striata Thomas.jpg
  1. ^ Chaudhry,S. (2010). "Channa striata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Courtenay, Jr., Walter R. and James D. Williams. Channa striata USGS Circular 1251: Snakeheads (Pisces, Chinnidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 2004-04-01. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  3. ^ a b c USGS, Southeast Ecological Science Center: Channa striata. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Walter R. Courtenay, Jr., James D. Williams, Ralf Britz, Mike N. Yamamoto, and Paul V. Loiselle. Bishop Occasional Papers, 2004. [1] Identity of Introduced Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) in Hawaii and Madagascar, with Comments on Ecological Concerns.
  5. ^ Akana-Gooch, Keiko Kiele. Hawaii snakehead lacks ferocity of mainland kin: A kinder, gentler fish, it poses no local threat to the environment. Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2002-07-28. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  6. ^ Federal Register: July 26, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 144). Federal Register Online. 2002-07-26. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  7. ^ Dill, William A., and Almo J. Cordone. Chevron snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
  8. ^ Fishing in Thailand (Thai)
  9. ^ Chua, Eddie. "The lure of the haruan". The Star Online. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Recipes
  11. ^ Venkatesh K, Prasanth B, Rajesh P, Annie J.G, Mukesh P, Jesu A (2014). "A murrel cysteine protease, cathepsin L: bioinformatics characterization, gene expression and proteolytic activity". Biologia 39: 395–406. doi:10.2478/s11756-013-0326-8. 
  12. ^ "Indians flock for asthma 'cure'". BBC News. 9 June 2003. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  13. ^ "SHRC moved against `fish medicine'". Times of India. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  14. ^ http://web.usm.my/mjps/MJPS%203(2)%202005/MJPS%203.2.3.pdf
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