Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

High-oceanic, found between 325-750 m during daytime (Ref. 4479). At night, a two layer system occurs, with adults found at 300-600 m and juveniles at 40-200 m (Ref. 4479).
  • Hulley, P.A. 1990 Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
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Distribution

Range Description

The White-spotted Lantern Fish (Diaphus rafinesquii) is found in the Mediterranean and the western Atlantic north of the Gulf Stream. This species is also distributed across the eastern Atlantic from Iceland to Mauritania.
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Western Atlantic: north of the Gulf Stream
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Mauritania including the Mediterranean and Iceland (Ref. 12462). Western Atlantic: north of the Gulf Stream. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Also reported from the Indian and the Pacific Oceans (Ref. 26165).
  • Hulley, P.A. 1990 Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
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Worldwide in temperate and tropical seas, including Mediterranean Sea.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 90 mm SL
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Max. size

9.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479))
  • Hulley, P.A. 1990 Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
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Type Information

Syntype for Diaphus rafinesquii
Catalog Number: USNM 89906
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Iselin
Year Collected: 1929
Locality: Bermuda, Atlantic
Depth (m): 1200
  • Syntype: Borodin, N. 1930. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club. 11: 89.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The White-spotted Lantern Fish is a bathypelagic, oceanodromous species that has a depth range of 40-1,080 m. This species shows diurnal vertical migration patterns (Hulley 1990). During the day it can be found at depths between 325-750 m and at night adults can be found at depths between 300-600 m and juveniles at a depth range of 40-200 m. This species is known to spawn during the autumn and winter months (Hulley 1984).

Systems
  • Marine
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found at depths of 40- 1080 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 40 - 1200 m (Ref. 58018)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • Bogutskaya, N.G. 2007 Preliminary assignment of coordinates to type localities in the Catalog of Fishes. Unpublished dbf file. (Ref. 58018)
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Depth range based on 300 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 292 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 25 - 3050
  Temperature range (°C): 2.826 - 26.729
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.122 - 29.396
  Salinity (PPS): 33.765 - 38.847
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.604 - 6.465
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.025 - 1.898
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.799 - 32.983

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 25 - 3050

Temperature range (°C): 2.826 - 26.729

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.122 - 29.396

Salinity (PPS): 33.765 - 38.847

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.604 - 6.465

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.025 - 1.898

Silicate (umol/l): 0.799 - 32.983
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 40 - 1080m.
From 40 to 1080 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Mesopelagic (Ref. 5951).
  • Costa, F. 1991 Atlante dei pesci dei mari italiani. Gruppo Ugo Mursia Editore S.p.A. Milano, Italy. 438 p. (Ref. 26335)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diaphus rafinesquii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Paxton, J.R.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
Diaphus rafinesquii has been assessed as Least Concern as there are no major threats impacting this species. It may occasionally be taken as by-catch although due to its small size this is unlikely to pose a major threat to this species.
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Population

Population
In biodiversity studies using pelagic trawls, low numbers of this species were reported (Moore et al. 2003). The White-spotted Lantern Fish is reported to be rare south to the Gulf of Mexico (FAO 2002).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There is no commercial fishery for this species, however it may be occasionally taken as a by-catch species. Due to its small size, this is not likely to pose a major threat as it is only likely to be retained in prawn fishery nets. There are no other threats to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for the White-spotted Lantern Fish.
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