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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit rocky and coral reefs, on rocks, sand or rubble (Ref. 9710). Found in weedy estuaries along the east coast of southern Africa (Ref. 4113). In the Atlantic, it is found at an average depth of 40 m (Ref. 5288). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Observed to inflate itself greatly like the puffers (Ref. 5521). Oviparous. Males have more intense coloration and extended cutaneous appendages than females (Ref. 205). Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
  • Pietsch, T.W. and D.B. Grobecker 1987 Frogfishes of the world. Systematics, zoogeography, and behavioral ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 420 p. (Ref. 6773)
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: from off the coast of New Jersey (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico and throughout the island groups of the Caribbean to the southernmost coast of Brazil.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Eastern Atlantic: off the African coast, from Senegal to Southwest Africa, with a single record from St. Helena. Western Atlantic: off the coast of New Jersey (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico and throughout the island groups of the Caribbean to the southernmost coast of Brazil. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the East African coast to the Society and Hawaiian islands, north to Japan, south to Australia and New Zealand.
  • Pietsch, T.W. and D.B. Grobecker 1987 Frogfishes of the world. Systematics, zoogeography, and behavioral ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 420 p. (Ref. 6773)
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Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Red Sea, Mascarenes, Hawaiian Islands), but except Eastern Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11 - 12; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 7
  • Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
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Size

Maximum size: 220 mm TL
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Max. size

25.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635))
  • Kuiter, R.H. and T. Tonozuka 2001 Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 1. Eels- Snappers, Muraenidae - Lutjanidae. Zoonetics, Australia. 302 p. (Ref. 48635)
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Diagnostic Description

Color variable, often light yellow, orange, green, gray or brown with black stripes or elongate blotches, sometimes solid black. Prominent lines radiate from eye (Ref. 26938). Bone supporting illicium extends in front of upper lip (Ref. 26938). Length usually to about 20 cm, but occasionally larger in subtropical zones (Ref. 48635).Description: Characterized by having unbranched pelvic rays except posteriormost bifurcate; illicium slightly longer than second dorsal spine; esca with 2-7 worm-like appendages; membrane connects second dorsal fin to head; hair-like filaments covering head, body and fins (Ref. 90102).
  • Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
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Description

Inhabits rocky and coral reefs, on rocks, sand or rubble (Ref. 9710). In the Atlantic, it is found at an average depth of 40 m (Ref. 5288). Observed to inflate itself greatly like the puffers (Ref. 5521).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Type Information

Paratype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 59948
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Stead
Locality: Port Jackson, N.S.W., New South Wales, Australia, Pacific
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1957. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 107 (3383): 75, fig. 3.
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Paratype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 197325
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): A. Herre
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: P.I.: Mindanao I., Dapita Bay., Mindanao, Philippines, Pacific
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1964. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 116 (3500): 179, pl. 1.
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Paratype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 164245
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): Shedd Aquarium
Year Collected: 1933
Locality: Australia, Sydney, N.S.W., New South Wales, Australia, Pacific
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1957. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 107 (3383): 76, fig. 4.
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Cotype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 49819
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Jordan & J. Snyder
Locality: Nagasaki, Japan, Kyushu, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, Pacific
  • Cotype: Snyder, J. O. 1902. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 24 (1261): 375, fig. 6.
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Paratype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 47853
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): Australian Museum, Sydney
Locality: Port Jackson, New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia, Pacific
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1957. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 107 (3383): 75, fig. 3.
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Holotype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 47854
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): Australian Museum, Sydney
Locality: Port Jackson, New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia, Pacific
  • Holotype: Schultz, L. P. 1957. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 107 (3383): 75, fig. 3.
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Paratype for Antennarius striatus
Catalog Number: USNM 28659
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Australia, Pacific
  • Paratype: Schultz, L. P. 1957. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 107 (3383): 75, fig. 3.
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 219 m (Ref. 9710), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 5288)
  • Edwards, A. 1990 Fish and fisheries of Saint Helena Island. Centre for Tropical Coastal Management Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. (Ref. 5288)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 142 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 64 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 190
  Temperature range (°C): 18.148 - 27.632
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.172 - 11.646
  Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.511
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.644 - 4.745
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.019 - 0.805
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 9.181

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 190

Temperature range (°C): 18.148 - 27.632

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.172 - 11.646

Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.511

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.644 - 4.745

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.019 - 0.805

Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 9.181
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 10 - 219m.
From 10 to 219 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits rocky and coral reefs, on rocks, sand or rubble (Ref. 9710). Found in weedy estuaries along the east coast of southern Africa (Ref. 4113).
  • Randall, J.E. 1967 Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. Miami 5:665-847.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous. Males have more intense coloration and extended cutaneous appendages than females (Ref. 205). Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Antennarius striatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GTATTTGGAGCATGAGCCGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCACTT---AGTTTACTAATCCGCGCAGAGCTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTTTTAGGCGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTTATCGTCACAGCACATGCTTTCGTCATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATACCCATTATGATCGGAGGGTTCGGCAATTGATTAATTCCACTAATA---ATTGGCGCCCCTGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCTTGCCTCCATCATTTCTTCTTTTATTAGCCTCATCAGGGGTAGAAGCTGGAGCAGGCACAGGATGAACAGTTTACCCGCCTCTTGCGGGTAATCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCATCTGTTGATTTA---ACTATTTTCTCACTTCACCTCGCAGGTGTATCATCTATCCTAGGAGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACTATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCAGCTCTTTCACAATACCAAACGCCTTTATTCGTATGAGCTGTGCTAGTCACTGCTGTGCTTCTGCTCCTTTCCCTTCCCGTTCTTGCTGCG---GGTATTACAATACTATTAACTGACCGAAACCTTAATACAGCCTTCTTTGACCCAACTGGCGGAGGAGACCCCATTTTATACCAACACCTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antennarius striatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antennarius striatus (black)

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Striated frogfish

The striated frogfish or hairy frogfish, Antennarius striatus, is a marine fish belonging to the family Antennariidae.

Description[edit]

This small fish grows up to 22 cm (8.7 in) long. Like other members of its family, it has a rounded, extensible body, and its soft skin is covered with irregularly-arranged dermal spinules resembling hairs. Its large mouth is forwardly extensible, allowing it to swallow prey as large as itself. The coloring of its body is extremely variable because individual fish tend to match their living environments. Frogfishes have the capacity to change coloration and pigment pattern, taking only a few weeks to adapt. The dominant coloration varies from yellow to brownish-orange, passing through a range of shades, but it can also be green, gray, brown, almost white, or even completely black without any pattern. Body and fins can be marked with roughly parallel dark stripes or elongated blotches, some with rays radiating outward from the eye.[1]

The first dorsal spine, the illicium, tips forward, and is modified for use like a fishing rod. Its tip has a characteristic worm-like esca (lure) which, when waved, attracts unsuspecting prey. The dorsal spine is composed of two to seven elongated appendages. The lure is a way to easily distinguish A. striatus from Antennarius hispidus, which otherwise has similar physical characteristics (stripes, coloration, cutaneous appendages) and with which it is often confused.[2] The illicium has the same length as the second dorsal spine and it is often darkly banded. The second dorsal spine is practically vertical and is movable, while the third one is bent towards the back of the body. They are well separated from each other and also from the dorsal fin.[1]

The pectoral fins are angled, and with the pelvic fins, allow the frogfish to "walk" on the sea bottom and to keep a stable position for ambush.

Distribution[edit]

The striated frogfish is found in the tropical and subtropical waters from the Indian Ocean to the center of the Pacific Ocean, and in the Atlantic Ocean on the western coast of Africa and from the New Jersey coast to the southern Brazilian coast including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.[3]

Habitat[edit]

This species inhabits shallow, sandy areas or rocky and coral reefs to deep waters. It can be found from the surface to 210 m with average occurrence at 40 m deep.[1]

Feeding[edit]

As all frogfishes, A. hispidus is a voracious carnivore which will devour all right-sized prey that pass within reach, usually other fish, but sometimes even its own kind. It can swallow prey its own size.[1]

Behaviour[edit]

Like other members of its family, it has a benthic and solitary lifestyle. They gather during mating period, but do not tolerate each other any more after the act of fertilization. The male can kill or eat the female if she stays close.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Pietsch & Grobecker, ‘’Frogfishes of the world’’, Stanford University Press, 1987,ISBN 9780804712637
  2. ^ http://www.frogfish.ch/species-arten/Antennarius-striatus.html
  3. ^ http://eol.org/pages/205048/details

Further reading[edit]

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