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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Etrumeus teres (Dekay, 1842)

Mediterranean Sea : 3700-805 (1 spc.), January 2003 , Iskenderun Bay , C. Dalyan .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 34-34, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Description

  Common names: herring (English), sardineta (Espanol), sardina (Espanol)
 
Etrumeus teres (DeKay, 1842)


Round herring



Body slender, rounded; 10-15 rays on membrane under gill cover; premaxilla (front bone of top jaws) rectangular; dorsal fin just before midbody; dorsal rays 18; pelvics behind dorsal; anal fin with short base (13 rays), origin well behind dorsal fin; belly with  only one scute (large spiny scale), W shaped, at front of base of pelvics.

Blue on back, silvery on sides and belly.

Size: reaches 30 cm.

Habitat: forms pelagic schools along rocky shorelines.

Depth: 0-200 m.

Southern Australia, Japan, East Africa, and Red Sea, W. Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Hawaiian Islands; in the eastern Pacific it occurs from southern California throughout the Gulf of California to Peru, and the Galapagos.
   
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Biology

Mainly inshore but has been occasionally taken 120 km from the Ecuador coast (Ref. 9291); also occur on shelf edge or surface (Ref. 11230), and between 50-150m (Ref. 028016). Usually occur in large schools (Ref. 2850). Epipelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on euphausiids and copepods (Ref. 9291). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35601). Marketed fresh, salted and canned. Also processed into fishmeal (Ref. 9291).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Distribution

Bay of Fundy to Florida
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Transient

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Global Range: Coastal waters from Bay of Fundy to southern Florida and northeastern Gulf of Mexico; rare from South Carolina to southern Florida (Robins and Ray 1986).

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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Circumglobal, including Red Sea, Hawaiian Islands; Mediterranean Sea immigrant.
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Circumglobal tropical and temperate: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique border to Durban, South Africa possibly further south (Ref. 3259); off Cape Gardefui and in the Red Sea, with immigrants to eastern Mediterranean. Western Atlantic: Bay of Fundy to Florida in USA, Gulf of Mexico, Venezuela, and the Guianas. Also Nova Scotia, Canada (Ref. 26938). Western Pacific: Japan, Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and southern coasts of Australia. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Chile (Ref. 35601), including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 28023) and Hawaii.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States; occasionally as far north as Woods Hole; sometimes straying to the mouth of the Bay of Fundy.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C.,1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Whitehead, P. J. P. and Y. R. Rodriguez-Sánchez, 1995; Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; Watson, W. and E. M. Sandknop, 1996.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (F) - 200 (F)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 18; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 10 - 13
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Size

Length max (cm): 30.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 250 mm SL
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Max. size

33.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557))
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to 25 cm. SL.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C.,1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Whitehead, P. J. P. and Y. R. Rodriguez-Sánchez, 1995; Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; Watson, W. and E. M. Sandknop, 1996.
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Mainly an inshore species. Usually occurs in large schools (Ref. 2850). Feeds mainly on euphausids and copepods (Ref. 9291). Reproduces between May and July in front of Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 9291).Caught with encircling nets and as a by-catch of trawls fishing for crabs (Ref. 9291). Marketed fresh, salted and canned. Also utilized as fishmeal (Ref. 9291).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Some variation in body depth and certain meristic characters; without pre- and post-pelvic scutes; W-shaped pelvic scute; pelvic fins less advanced. Distinguished from E. whiteheadi of southern African waters by having fewer anal fin rays and the pelvic fin base about 1/3 eye diameter. Isthmus with lateral flanges or shoulders (Ref. 188). Silvery with an olive green back. Scales deciduous (Ref. 7251). Also Ref. 3259.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Ecology

Habitat

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found at depths of 50-150 m, mainly inshore.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Coastal waters; less likely to enter bays and shallows than are other herrings (Robins and Ray 1986).

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Depth: 50 - 150m.
From 50 to 150 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 28016)
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Depth range based on 1181 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 686 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 567
  Temperature range (°C): 5.212 - 25.997
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 24.464
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.587
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.350 - 6.535
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 1.877
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 25.303

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 567

Temperature range (°C): 5.212 - 25.997

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.144 - 24.464

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.587

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.350 - 6.535

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 1.877

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 25.303
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Pelagic; marine; depth range; 50-150 m. Mainly inshore but has been occasionally taken 120 km from the coast . Usually occur in large schools.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C.,1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Whitehead, P. J. P. and Y. R. Rodriguez-Sánchez, 1995; Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; Watson, W. and E. M. Sandknop, 1996.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Water column only

Habitat: Water column

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Pelagic in coastal waters (Ref. 9137, 75154). A schooling (Ref. 75154) and carnivore species (Ref. 9137).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Feed mainly on euphausids and copepods.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C.,1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Whitehead, P. J. P. and Y. R. Rodriguez-Sánchez, 1995; Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; Watson, W. and E. M. Sandknop, 1996.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Planktivore

Diet: zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, pelagic fish larvae
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Associations

Known predators

Etrumeus teres (round herring) is prey of:
Scomber japonicus
Actinopterygii
Merluccius
Cephalopoda
Scombridae
Thyrsites atun
Seriola
Atractoscion aequidens
Cetacea
Aves
Phocidae
Chondrichthyes

Based on studies in:
South Africa, Southwest coast (Marine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Yodzis P (2000) Diffuse effects in food webs. Ecology 81:261–266
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Known prey organisms

Etrumeus teres (round herring) preys on:
mesozooplankton
macrozooplankton

Based on studies in:
South Africa, Southwest coast (Marine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Yodzis P (2000) Diffuse effects in food webs. Ecology 81:261–266
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feed on euphausids and copepods
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Pelagic eggs (Ref. 205).
  • Sanders, M.J., S.M. Kedidi and M.R. Hegazy 1984 Stock assessment for the round herring (Etrumeus teres) caught by purse seine in the Gulf of Suez. Project for the Develpoment of Fisheries in the areas of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, FAO/UNDP RAB/81/002/13. Cairo. 36 p. (mimeo). (Ref. 1506)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=1506&speccode=1455 External link.
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Reproduction

Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C.,1953; Whitehead, P. J. P., 1985; Whitehead, P. J. P. and Y. R. Rodriguez-Sánchez, 1995; Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; Watson, W. and E. M. Sandknop, 1996.
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Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Etrumeus teres

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Etrumeus teres

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTTTTCTCAACCAATCACAAAGATATTGGCACCCTTTACCTGGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCAGGAATGGTCGGCACGGCCTTA---AGCCTACTGATCCGGGCAGAACTTAGTCAGCCTGGGGCCTTGTTAGGTGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTAATGGTTACCGCACACGCCTTTGTTATGATTTTCTTCATAGTAATGCCAATCTTGATTGGCGGATTTGGAAACTGATTAGTTCCTCTTATG---CTTGGAGCACCAGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTTCCCCCCTCCTTTCTTCTCCTGCTTGCCTCATCTGGGGTTGAAGCCGGAGCAGGGACTGGGTGAACTGTCTACCCCCCTCTAGCCGGCAATCTCGCTCATGCAGGGGCATCCGTCGACTTA---ACTATTTTCTCACTTCATCTAGCAGGGATTTCTTCGATTCTTGGGGCAATTAATTTTATTACCACAATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCCGCAGTTTCTCAGTATCAAACACCCCTATTTGTCTGATCAGTATTAATTACTGCCGTTCTTCTTCTATTATCACTCCCAGTGCTGGCTGCC---GGAATTACTATGCTACTGACAGATCGAAATCTTAATACTACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCTGGAGGAGGAGATCCTATTCTTTACCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTATATATTCTTATTCTTCCTGGCTTCGGAATAATCTCCCACATTGTAGCCTACTACGCTGGCAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGTTATATAGGAATGGTTTGAGCTATAATAGCAATCGGCCTATTAGGGTTCATCGTTTGAGCCCATCATATGTTTACAGTAGGTATGGACGTTGACACCCGAGCATACTTCACCTCAGCAACAATAATTATTGCCATTCCCACTGGTGTTAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCAACCCTACACGGGGGC---TCAATTAAATGAGAAACCCCTATGTTGTGGGCCCTGGGATTTATCTTCCTATTCACCGTTGGAGGGCTAACAGGAATCGTATTAGCCAACTCATCACTAGATATTGTCCTACATGATACGTACTATGTAGTTGCACACTTCCACTATGTC---CTATCTATGGGGGCTGTATTTGCAATCATGGCTGCCTTCATGCACTGATTCCCCCTATTTTCAGGATACACTCTTCACAGCACTTGATCAAAAATTCACTTTGGGGTTATGTTCGTAGGAGTAAACCTCACTTTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTAGGTCTAGCAGGAATGCCTCGT---CGGTACTCCGACTACCCAGACGCCTACACT---CTCTGAAATACTGTCTCCTCAATCGGATCACTTGTCTCTTTAGTAGCAGTAATTATATTCCTATTTATTCTTTGAGAAGCATTTGCTGCCAAACGAGAAGTT---GCATCAGTAGAGCTCACTATAACTAAT
-- end --

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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