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BiologyFound mostly inshore: chiefly in bays, inlets and estuaries, sometimes in low salinities. Older individuals tend to move out to sea in winter and back in the spring. Forms compact schools much preyed upon by larger fishes, common dolphins and birds. Feeds on plankton. Spawns in inlets, bays and also estuaries, probably throughout the year but mainly in late spring to early autumn and especially about November to February. The eggs are ellipsoidal. Utilized as fish paste.