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BiologyOccur on shallow banks, but is not known from well-developed coral reefs (Ref. 27253) and adjacent soft substrate in depths of 30-105 m (Ref. 089707). Also found in silty coastal reefs and estuaries. Solitary (Ref 90102). Benthic (Ref. 75154). In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Usually taken by trawling in 30-45 m or by hand-lining over rocky banks; not found from coral reefs (Ref. 11441).