Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults usually settle along reef edges in current-prone areas (Ref. 48635). Uncommon species found solitary or paired, among branches of gorgonians, floating weeds, or crinoids (Ref. 9710). They feed mostly on mysids but also target small benthic shrimps (Ref. 48635). Females carry the eggs in their pelvic fins that are modified to form a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Solenostomus paradoxus can be found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region. It has been observed in and around the Red Sea, the Maldives, Indonesia, southern Japan, the Marshall Islands, New Guinea, off the east coast of Africa and also off the east coast of Australia (Orr and Fritzsche, 1993).

Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to southeast Australia and New Caledonia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comores and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia at 17°06'S and New Caledonia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Solenostomus paradoxus possesses the elongate snout and laterally compressed body that are typical of all syngnathoid fishes. More specific to the solenostomids is a dermal skeleton composed of stellate plates, a head region that represents over one third of the total body length and the presence of pelvic fins, two separate dorsal fins, an anal fin and a large ventral fin. Solenostomus paradoxus is further distinguished by the presence of abdominal spinules, additional plates at the dorsal- and anal-fin bases and the presence of nasal lamellae filling the nasal cavity of males. There is no body color representative of S. paradoxus. Typical color patterns include dark red with yellow and orange splotches and yellow with lighter spots.

The Harlequin Ghost Pipefish is sexually dimorphic. Female S. paradoxus average 130 mm; males on average are 37% smaller. The main difference between males and females is the presence of a ventral brood pouch in females. This difference is most noticeable in the margins of the pelvic fins which are apposed in females and free in males (Wetzel and Wourms, 1995; Orr and Fritzsche, 1993;   http://www.austmus.gov.au/fishes/fishfacts/fish/sparadox.htm).

Other Physical Features: bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dorsal spines (total): 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 21; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 17 - 21; Vertebrae: 32 - 33
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 120 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

12.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334))
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Post-pelagic are almost fully transparent and more slender compared to those established in the benthic phase. Variable in color from black to red and yellow, usually in a mix of bands and spots (Ref. 48635). Total body number of plates 31-35. Caudal fin truncate, rounded or lanceolate. Caudal fins of females modified into brood pouch (Ref. 9829).Description: Characterized by body depth 13.1-23.4 % SL; least snout depth 2.8-5.6 % SL; depth of caudal peduncle 2.4-5.3 % SL; length of caudal peduncle 9.1-20.2 % SL; length of caudal fin 30.6-41.8 % SL; snout with short skin filaments; body and fins with jagged edges giving spiky appearance (Ref 90102).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Solenostomus paradoxus is found in shallow tropical waters, mainly near coral reefs, rocky dropoffs or seaweed beds. S. Paradoxus is usually observed in 3-25 meters of water (  http://www.austmus.gov.au/fishes/fishfacts/fish/sparadox.htm;   http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/0/0,5716,61650+1+60134,00.html).

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; coastal

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 4 - 35 m (Ref. 90102)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3.5 - 27.4
  Temperature range (°C): 27.233 - 27.933
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.056 - 0.655
  Salinity (PPS): 34.161 - 34.992
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.387 - 4.680
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.162 - 0.226
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.622 - 3.321

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3.5 - 27.4

Temperature range (°C): 27.233 - 27.933

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.056 - 0.655

Salinity (PPS): 34.161 - 34.992

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.387 - 4.680

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.162 - 0.226

Silicate (umol/l): 0.622 - 3.321
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Solenostomus paradoxus is an ambush predator that feeds by sucking small aquatic organisms rapidly into the mouth (  http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/0/0,5716,61650+1+60134,00.html).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Found on the continental shelf. Benthic species (Ref. 75154). Usually settles along reef edges in current-prone areas (Ref. 48635). Uncommon species found solitary or paired, among branches of gorgonians, floating weeds, or crinoids (Ref. 9710, 75154). Feeds mostly on mysids but also target small benthic shrimps (Ref. 48635).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Pelvic fins of females are modified as brood pouch for the reception of the eggs (Ref. 205).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Solenostomus paradoxus is an external skin-brooding species. Embryos are enclosed in an envelope and attached to special epidermal cells called cotylephores. In S. paradoxus, these cells occur only on the inside surface of the pelvic fins of females (the brooders in this species.) The pelvic fins of females are expanded and connect to the body and to each other in order to form a brood pouch. Females carry eggs in this pouch during the incubation period. This method allows the female to move her young to a site that is favorable for survival and also decreases the risk of predation during the developmental stage. Clutch size in S. paradoxus is variable. It has been estimated that a normal brood size may be as high as 350 (Wetzel et al., 1997; Wetzel and Wourms, 1995; Orr and Fritzsche, 1993).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

No specific conservation measures are currently in effect.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

This organism does not appear to adversely affect humans.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Underwater photographers and scuba divers are highly attracted to the unique appearance of Solenostomus paradoxushttp://www.coralrealm.com/fish/ghostpipe.ihtml).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Solenostomus paradoxus

The ornate ghost pipefish or harlequin ghost pipefish, Solenostomus paradoxus, is a false pipefish of the family Solenostomidae. The species name comes from the Greek paradoxos, referring to this fish's unusual external features. Ornate ghost pipefish are found in the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean along reef edges prone to strong currents. They reach a maximum length of 12 cm. They vary in color from red or yellow to black and are almost transparent. They feed mostly on mysids and benthic shrimp. Females carry the eggs in their pelvic fins that are modified to form a brood pouch. Although relatively common, ornate ghost pipefish are very well-camouflaged and difficult to find.[1]

Its ghostly appearance gives the fish its name.
Different color variation
A pair observed in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

The IUCN conservation status of Solenostomus paradoxus has not been evaluated.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dianne J Bray & Vanessa J Thompson, 2011, Ornate Ghostpipefish, Solenostomus paradoxus, in Fishes of Australia, accessed 07 Oct 2014, http://www.fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/3165
  2. ^ IUCN Redlist. Accessed: 4 Sept 2012
  • Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2008). "Solenostomus paradoxus" in FishBase. January 2008 version.
  • Orr, JW and Fritzsche, RA. 1993. Revision of the Ghost Pipefishes, Family Solenostomidae (Teleostei: Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993:168-182.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!