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BiologyOceanic and mesopelagic, found in the upper 100 m south of 50°S, but below 550 m in the region of Subtropical Convergence (Ref. 4066). Migrates from 80 to 140 m to the surface at about 18h00 with ascent rate of 0.5 m per minute; the descent rate is 1.8 m per minute. Forms the main component of the Deep Scattering Layer in the Pacific sector. Feeds on copepods, hyperiids and euphausiids, but also takes ostracods and gastropods. Eaten by squid and to an insignificant degree, by fishes (Channichthyidae, Notolepis sp.) and birds (Procellariidae). Maximum depth from Ref. 58018.