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Overview

Brief Summary

Sang Spektakuler "Amphiprion clarkii"

Clownfish Clarkii atau Amphiprion clarkii adalah ikan nemo yang memiliki distribusi yang luas. Ikan ini dapat ditemukan di perairan tropis, laguna dan di lereng terumbu. Amphiprion clarkii merupakan ikan yang memiliki warna-warni yang menarik, dengan garis-garis hitam, putih dan kuning cerah, pola warna ini menunjukkan variasi geografis yang cukup besar, namun umumnya pada tubuh ikan ini ada dua garis putih, satu di belakang mata dan satu di atas anus. Jenis ikan Badut ini memiliki tubuh yang kuning-oranye dengan garis-garis putih vertikal di sepanjang tubuh mereka. Sirip ekor berwarna putih atau kuning, namun warnanya selalu lebih halus dari warna tubuhnya.

Amphiprion clarkii merupakan spesies ikan akuarium yang cukup terkenal. Ikan ini adalah jenis ikan omnivora. Mereka umunya menjadi tuan rumah dalam anemon laut. Ikan badut ini tidak begitu memerlukan Anemone untuk bertahan hidup, tetapi mereka mudah dan akan menerima berbagai jenis anemone berbeda untuk di tinggali, termasuk karang. Amphiprion clarkii umum ditemukan berenang di antara tentakel Anemon baik besar dan kecil, maupun di terumbu karang yang spektakuler.Ikan ini jarang ditemukan di laut dalam, karena biasanya habitat tinggalnya yang berupa anemone dan karang berada di perairan dangkal dengan penetrasi cahaya yang cukup sebagai bahan dasar fotosintesis zooxanthellae.

Ikan Amphiprion clarkii memproduksi lendir pelindung yang menutupi tubuh mereka untuk mencegah sengatan dari Anemon. Produksi lender ini dapat dilakukan dengan dua cara: pertama ikan menyerap lendir dari Anemones itu sendiri, yang mereka gunakan untuk melindungi tubuhnya agar tidak menyengat tubuh sendiri, atau mereka menghasilkan lendir sendiri yang reaktif terhadap sengatan anemon. Amphiprion clarkii memiliki gerakan renang yang sangat berbeda yang berbeda dari kebanyakan ikan. Hal ini mungkin diturunkan melalui susunan genetik mereka. Ikan Butterflyfish merupakan predator dari ikan Amphiprion clarkii. Ikan ini bersifat hermafrodit. Ikan ini memiliki hierarki sosial yang ketat. Di alam bebas ikan ini hidup dalam kelompok kecil dengan satu perempuan yang dominan besar, satu laki-laki yang aktif secara seksual lebih kecil, dan beberapa laki-laki lebih kecil dan remaja. Ketika perempuan itu hilang, maka jantan terbesar akan berubah kelamin dan menjadi perempuan.

Amphiprion clarkii sering melakukan tugas bersih-bersih pada tubuh anemon yaitu dengan cara memunguti remah-remah makanan atau kotoran lainnya sehingga tubuh anemon bisa terbebas dari berbagai jenis parasit, dan ikan ini sering membawakan makanan bagi anemon.

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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit lagoons and outer reef slopes. Omnivorous. Oviparous, with elliptical eggs (Ref. 240). Monogamous (Ref. 52884). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Associated with the anemones: Cryptodendrum adhaesivum, Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis aurora, Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, Heteractis malu, Macrodactyla doreensis, Stichodactyla gigantea, Stichodactyla haddoni, and Stichodactyla mertensii (Ref. 5911). Has been observed to share home anemone with individuals of A. sandaracinos (Ref. 90000). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35418, 35420).
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Western Australia, throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago and in the western Pacific at the islands of Melanesia and Micronesia, north to Taiwan, southern Japan and the Ryukyu Islands.
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Indo-West Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 16; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 13 - 14
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm SL
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Max. size

15.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6113)); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 11318)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits lagoons and outer reef slopes. Omnivorous. Comensal with the anemones @Cryptodendrum adhesivum@ @Entacmaea quadricolor@, @Stichodactyla mertensii@, @S. gigantea@, @S. haddoni@, @Heteractis crispa@, and @H. aurora@.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Highly variable in color and several geographical and localized forms (Ref. 48636). Two white bands, one behind the eye and one above the anus. Caudal fin white, sometimes yellowish, but always lighter than rest of the body.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 58652)
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Depth range based on 70 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 28 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.305 - 50.8
  Temperature range (°C): 24.872 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 1.118
  Salinity (PPS): 32.185 - 35.361
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.202 - 4.725
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.073 - 0.337
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 5.552

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.305 - 50.8

Temperature range (°C): 24.872 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 1.118

Salinity (PPS): 32.185 - 35.361

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.202 - 4.725

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.073 - 0.337

Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 5.552
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 55m.
From 1 to 55 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154). Inhabits lagoons and outer reef slopes. Commensal with the anemones Cryptodendrum adhesivum Entacmaea quadricolor, Stichodactyla mertensii, S. gigantea, S. haddoni, Heteractis crispa, and H. Omnivorous (Ref. 35418, 35420). Feeds on plants and invertebrates (Ref. 6110). Aurora. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35418, 35420).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Benthic spawner. Sex reversal is completed in less than 5-6 months (Ref. 34185). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 11 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amphiprion clarkii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTTTATCTAATTTTCGGTGCTTGAGCTGGGATAGTAGGCACGGCCTTAAGCCTTCTTATTCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTTTTAGGAGATGATCAAATTTATAACGTTATTGTTACCGCACATGCCTTCGTGATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTACCCCTTATGCTTGGCGCCCCCGATATAGCATTCCCTCGCATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCTCCCTCTTTCCTTCTTCTGCTTGCTTCCTCAGGAGTTGAAGCCGGGGCCGGAACAGGCTGAACTGTATATCCCCCACTGTCTGGAAACCTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCCGTGGACTTAACTATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTGGCAGGTGTTTCATCAATCCTGGGAGCAATCAACTTTATCACTACCATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCACACAGTATCAAACCCCTCTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTCCTAATTACTGCTGTTCTTCTTCTCCTCTCTCTCCCAGTACTAGCTGCCGGTATTACTATGCTCTTAACGGACCGAAATCTAAATACTACCTTCTTTGATCCAGCAGGGGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTCTACCAACACCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amphiprion clarkii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 2 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at University of the Ryukyus
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Clark's anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii, known commonly as Clark's anemonefish and yellowtail clownfish, is a marine fish belonging to the family Pomacentridae, the clownfishes and damselfishes.[1]

Description[edit]

Clark's anemonefish is a small-sized fish which grows up to 10 cm as a male and 15 cm as a female.[2] It is stocky, laterally compressed, and oval to rounded.

It is colorful, with vivid black, white, and yellow stripes, though the exact pattern shows considerable geographical variation. Usually it is black dorsally and orange-yellow ventrally, the black areas becoming wider with age.[3] There are two vertical white bands, one behind the eye and one above the anus, and the caudal peduncle is white. The snout is orange or pinkish. The dorsal and tail fins are orange-yellow,[4] and the tail fin is generally lighter in tone than the rest of the body, sometimes becoming whitish.[5] Juveniles are orange-yellow with vertical white bands.[4]

Distribution[edit]

Clark's anemonefish is widely distributed in tropical waters from the Indo-West Pacific.[6]

Habitat[edit]

The adult inhabits lagoons and outer reef slopes. It lives in association with about ten species of sea anemones:

Feeding[edit]

Clark's anemonefish is omnivorous and its diet is based on zooplankton and algaes.[7]

Amphiprion clarkii sipadan.jpg

Behaviour[edit]

The fish is diurnal. It is a protrandous hermaphrodite, the male often changing sex to become a female. A male may keep a harem. The fish is also aggressive and territorial.[8] Without a host, Clark's anemonefish stays close to rockwork.[8] Otherwise, it is dependent on sea anemones to provide a habitat and nesting sites. The fish has a mucous coat to protect it from anemone stings. It is a mutualistic relationship. The clownfish helps to attract prey items close to the anemone's tentacles, and helps to defend it from tentacle-eating predators, such as butterflyfishes.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830)". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  2. ^ Lougher, Tristan (2006). What Fish?: A Buyer's Guide to Marine Fish. Interpet Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 0-7641-3256-3. "What size? Males maximum 4 in (10 cm), females maximum 5 7/8 in (15 cm)" 
  3. ^ a b c By Padgette' Steer. "ADW: Amphiprion clarkii: INFORMATION". Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  4. ^ a b "SOUS LES MERS : Amphiprion clarkii - poisson-clown de Clark". Fran.cornu.free.fr. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  5. ^ "Facts about Clark's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  6. ^ "Facts about Clark's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  7. ^ "Facts about Clark's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  8. ^ a b Lougher, Tristan (2006). What Fish?: A Buyer's Guide to Marine Fish. Interpet Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 0-7641-3256-3. "In the absence of an anemone, the fish remains close to rockwork. Otherwise, it stays with its host, wherever it is located.... Clarke's anemonefish is a belligerent species when large, attacking anything that threatens its anemone" 
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