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Overview

Brief Summary

The grey gurnard is the most common species of gurnard in the North Sea. In the summer, they stay in massive numbers in the shallow southern North Sea. When it gets colder, they move to warmer water. The grey gurnard is a benthic inhabitant and is often caught as by-catch with other benthic fish (plaice, sole). The grey gurnard itself has hardly any commercial value.
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Comprehensive Description

Chelidonichthys gurnardus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Sea of Marmara : 11200-684 (5 spc.), 14.07.1995 , Offshore of Karabiga-Karaburun , trawl , 65 m, L. Eryilmaz . Aegean Sea : 11200-214 (1 spc.), 08.02.1969 , Edremit Bay, 90 m , M. Demir .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 42-42, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Common on sandy grounds, sometimes on rocky bottoms, and also on mud between coastline to 140 m depth. Up to depth of 340 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feeds on crustaceans, mostly shrimps and shore crabs; fishes, mostly gobies, flatfish, young herring and sand eels. Makes croaking sounds (Ref. 9987). Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten fried and baked (Ref. 9987).
  • Bauchot, M.-L. 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=3397&speccode=2504 External link.
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Description

 Eutrigla gurnardus is a large member of the sea robin family reaching up to 30 cm (and rarely up to 50 cm) in length. It has a large head with a sloping forehead and a body that tapers towards the tail. Two dorsal fins are present on the back. The first, which is much smaller than the second has 7-10 spines and large black mark near the top. The second dorsal fin and its symmetrical anal fin counterpart both have 18-20 rays. The pectoral fins are short and barely reach the anal fin. The caudal fin is short and truncate. The grey gurnard is usually greyish-brown in colour with a red tinge on the back and sides. Small white spots are usually present on the sides and the underside is cream in colour.
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Description

The grey gurnard is a relatively slender bodied gurnard with a sharply pointed snout. Like all gurnards it has a large head covered by protective bony plates and the lower three rays of the pectoral fins are separate and fleshy. Adult fish are usually around 30cm long but large individuals can be up to 45cm. The scales along the lateral line are sharply spined, although this is most conspicuous in small fish. The colour ranges from grey to greyish-brown with small whitish-cream spots and there is a characteristic dark blotch on the rear edge of the first dorsal fin. Greyish coloured tub gurnards might sometimes be confused with this species however grey gurnards have a dark spot on the first dorsal fin and do not have blue markings on their pectoral fins.
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Distribution

Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland to Morocco including Madeira.
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Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco, Madeira, and Iceland. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea (Ref. 4697).
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Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland to Morocco including Madeira.
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The grey gurnard is widespread all around the coasts of Britain and Ireland.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)); max. published weight: 956 g (Ref. 41256)
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Diagnostic Description

Head large without deep occipital groove. Vertebrae 37-39 (11-13 precaudal and 25-27 caudal).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth: 20 - 300m.
From 20 to 300 meters.
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Environment

demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 340 m (Ref. 56504), usually 10 - 150 m (Ref. 35388)
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Depth range based on 210852 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 158798 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 749
  Temperature range (°C): 4.502 - 12.499
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 16.868
  Salinity (PPS): 8.860 - 35.608
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.262 - 7.118
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.247 - 0.997
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 16.024

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 749

Temperature range (°C): 4.502 - 12.499

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 16.868

Salinity (PPS): 8.860 - 35.608

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.262 - 7.118

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.247 - 0.997

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 16.024
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 The grey gurnard is a coastal demersal species usually found on sandy bottoms down to 140 m depth but also on rocky or muddy seabeds.
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Depth: 20 - 300m.
From 20 to 300 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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This species is usually found on muddy or sandy seabeds or in areas of mixed sediment and rock. It is most frequently encountered at depths between 20-50m although it is known to occur from 10-200m. The diet consists of bottom-living crustaceans and small fish.
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Trophic Strategy

General migration towards the shore during summer, where it can enter estuaries.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The young are pelagic until attaining a length of 3 cm.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eutrigla gurnardus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eutrigla gurnardus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 29
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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Wikipedia

Grey gurnard

Eutrigla gurnardus, the grey gurnard, is a species of searobin native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. This fish can be found at depths of from 10 to 340 metres (33 to 1,120 ft) though it is not normally found below 150 metres (490 ft). This species grows to a length of 60 cm (24 in) TL though usually reaching up to 30 cm (12 in) TL.[1] This species is the only known member of its genus.[2]

In Ireland, the fish has been called the cuckoo fish, knoud or noud..[3]


Behaviour[edit]

As other sea robins, grey gurnards produce sounds. Sound production in this species is often associated with competition for food. Small individuals produce more sounds than larger ones, and emit more "grunts" than "knocks", probably because they more often compete for food by contest tactics whereas larger specimens predominantly scramble for food.[4]

Fisheries[edit]

Grey gurnard are of commercial importance as a food fish.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Eutrigla gurnardus" in FishBase. December 2012 version.
  2. ^ "Eutrigla Fraser-Brunner, 1938". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  3. ^ "The Ancient and Present State of the County of Cork". The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork. Guy & Co. Ltd. Guy and Co. Ltd. 1893. Retrieved 30 Nov 2013. 
  4. ^ Amorim, M. C. P.; Hawkins, A. D. (2005). "Ontogeny of acoustic and feeding behaviour in the grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus". Ethology 111 (3): 255–269. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2004.01061.x.  edit
  5. ^ "Eutrigla gurnardus (Linnaeus, 1758)". FAO Species Fact Sheets. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 


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