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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Rock-reef species inhabiting depths to at least 55 m. Juveniles are often found shallower than 10 m (Ref. 089707). A highly prized food fish usually caught by hand-lining over rock strata. Found in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Distribution

Range Description

Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus is a coastal species in the western Pacific from southern Japan to Taiwan, including mainland China, Philippines, Viet Nam, Hong Kong, Hainan and Sarawak (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
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Northwest Pacific: southern China, Taiwan, East China Sea, Korea, and southern Japan (Kyushu to about 38°N on both coasts of Honshu). Reported specimen from Viet Nam may be Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus and records from the Philippines and India are unsubstantiated.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Western Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

58.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707)); max. published weight: 2,470 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Craig, M., YJ.S. de Mitcheson and P.C. Heemstra 2011 Groupers of the world: a field and market guide. North America: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group. 356 p. (Ref. 89707)
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body pale brownish grey, covered with small red, orange or gold spots except on ventral side; 6 faint oblique dark bars on body; dark brown blotch on body at base of the 3 dorsal fin spines; dorsal fin margin yellow or orange; row of dusky yellow or orange spots along middle of the spinous dorsal fin and another row along the base of the fin; faint red or orange spots at caudal and anal fins; body depth less than head length, 2.7-3.2 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; preopercle with enlarged serrae at angle; upper edge of operculum straight; subequal posterior and anterior nostril; maxilla reaching about to vertical at rear edge of eye; two rows of teeth at midside of lower jaw; pelvic fins not reaching anus; caudal fin rounded; lateral body scales ctenoid, with auxiliary in adults (Ref. 089707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
General
Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus occurs in shallow rocky areas of bedrock and boulders at 15 to 20 m (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).

Feeding
Feeds on fishes, prawns, crabs, worms and gastropods (Chan 1968).

Reproduction
Minimum age at sex change two years (Chen et al. 1980b).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range ? - 55 m (Ref. 89707)
  • Craig, M., YJ.S. de Mitcheson and P.C. Heemstra 2011 Groupers of the world: a field and market guide. North America: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group. 356 p. (Ref. 89707)
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits coral reefs (Ref. 58534). Widespread in rocky areas (Ref. 9137).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Epinephelus akaara

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGATTCTTCTCGACTAATCACAAAGACATTGGTACCCTTTATCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGAACTGCCCTC---AGCCTGCTCATTCGAGCTGAACTGAGCCAGCCTGGAGCCCTACTCGGCGAT---GATCAGATCTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATTGGTGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTATCCCGCTTATA---ATTGGCGCCCCAGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCCCCATCCTTCCTGCTTCTTCTAGCCTCTTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGCGCTGGTACTGGTTGAACAGTTTATCCCCCTCTAGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCATGCAGGTGCATCTGTAGACCTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTACATCTTGCAGGGATTTCATCAATTCTAGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACCATCATCAACATGAAACCTCCCGCCACCTCTCAGTATCAGACACCCTTGTTTGTATGGGCTGTCCTAATTACAGCGGTGCTACTGCTCCTGTCCCTCCCTGTTCTTGCCGCC---GGCATTACAATACTTCTAACAGATCGTAACCTCAACACTACTTTCTTTGACCCGGCCGGAGGGGGAGATCCTATCCTTTACCAACACCTGTTCTGATTCTTCGGTCACCCTGAAGTTTATATTCTAATTCTCCCTGGCTTCGGAATAATTTCCCATATCGTTGCATATTATTCTGGTAAAAAA---GAGCCATTCGGTTACATGGGTATGGTTTGAGCTATGATGGCCATCGGCCTTTTAGGGTTTATCGTATGAGCACATCACATGTTCACAGTCGGGATAGACGTAGACACACGTGCATATTTTACATCAGCCACCATAATTATTGCGATCCCTACTGGTGTTAAAGTCTTCAGCTGACTA---GCCACACTTCATGGGGGG---TCTATTAAATGAGAGACCCCACTTCTATGAGCACTCGGGTTCATTTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGAGGGCTAACAGGGATTGTTCTAGCCAACTCTTCACTAGATATTGTTCTGCATGATACATATTATGTAGTTGCCCACTTCCACTACGTA---CTCTCAATAGGAGCCGTGTTTGCCATTGTAGCTGCCTTCGTGCACTGATTCCCTTTGTTTACAGGTTATACCCTACACAGCACTTGAACAAAAATCCACTTCGGAATCATGTTTGTGGGTGTAAATCTTACCTTCTTCCCTCAACATTTCTTAGGACTAGCTGGAATGCCTCGT---CGATACTCAGACTACCCAGATGCTTACACC---CTATGAAACACCGTATCTTCTATTGGCTCCATAGTTTCTCTTGTGGCAGTAATTATGTTCCTGTTCATTATCTGGGAAGCATTTGCCTCTAAACGTGAAGTT---CTAGCAGTAGAACTAACCATAACCAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epinephelus akaara

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CCTTTATCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGAACCGCCCTCAGCCTGCTTATTCGAGCTGAACTGAGCCAGCCTGGAGCTCTACTCGGCGATGATCAGATCTATAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATCATGATTGGTGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTTATCCCGCTTATAATTGGCGCCCCTGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCATCCTTCCTGCTCCTTCTGGCCTCTTCTGGGGTAGAAGCCGGTGCTGGTACTGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCACCTCTAGCAGGAAACCTAGCCCATGCAGGCGCATCTGTAGACCTAACCATTTTCTCCCTACATCTAGCAGGGATTTCATCAATTCTAGGAGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACCATCATCAATATAAAACCCCCCGCTACCTCTCAATATCAAACACCTTTGTTTGTATGGGCTGTCCTAATTACAGCGGTGCTACTGCTTCTATCCCTTCCTGTTCTTGCCGCCGGCATTACAATACTTCTAACAGATCGTAACCTTAACACTACTTTCTTTGACCCAGCCGGAGGGGGAGATCCTATCCTTTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Samoilys, M.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus is listed as Data Deficient. Although data are scarce, this small grouper is locally targeted in fisheries in Hong Kong and Taiwan and may also be subjected to habitat degradation from coastal development in Philippines and China due to its shallow habitats. In addition its range is limited. Conservation action including protected areas for this species is minimal in much of its range. This combination of factors suggest listing as Data Deficient because of no population data but potentially Near Threatened and, therefore, catches and effort should be carefully monitored.
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Population

Population
Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus was one of the most common nearshore fishes in the 1960s in Hong Kong waters, now only moderately abundant in local markets (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Although Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus is a small species, it is important in trawl, gill net and hook and line fisheries in Hong Kong and Taiwan because it is a favoured and valuable food fish (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
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Endangered (EN) (A2d), IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus is probably found in some marine protected areas within its range (e.g., Philippines and Hong Kong).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • Garibaldi, L. 1996 List of animal species used in aquaculture. FAO Fish. Circ. 914. 38 p. (Ref. 12108)
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