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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Atherinomorus lacunosus (Forster, 1801)

Aegean Sea : 8900-160 (2 spc.), 08.07.1962 , Bodrum .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 40-40, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Feeds on zooplankton, small bottom-living invertebrates (Ref. 5980). Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302). Sold fresh, or salted and dried (Ref. 12484). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaii, the Samoan and Phoenix islands, north to southern Japan and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland, Australia and New Caledonia. Recently migrated into the eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. Replaced by Atherinomorus insularum in the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 37816).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 5 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 11; Analspines: 1; Analsoft rays: 12 - 17; Vertebrae: 38 - 43
  • Ivantsoff, W. and L.E.L.M. Crowley 1999 Atherinidae. Silversides (or hardyheads). p. 2113-2139. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9760)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9760&speccode=1303 External link.
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm ---
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Max. size

25.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Feeds on zooplankton, small bottom-living invertebrates (Ref. 5980). Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Distal end of upper jaw extending backward to vertical through anterior border of pupil; free edge of dentary bone almost flat, with no posterior elevation; scales in midlateral series 39-44 (Ref. 9760). Ramus of premaxilla long, extending past vertical through anterior border of pupil. Anus at or in front of ventral tips. Four pit-like pores on dorsal surface of head, usually covered by large scale. Axillary scales large but usually shed. Body green, light yellow or brownish. Upper half of body always darker. Most scales edged with black. (see also Ref. 559).
  • Ivantsoff, W. and L.E.L.M. Crowley 1999 Atherinidae. Silversides (or hardyheads). p. 2113-2139. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9760)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9760&speccode=1303 External link.
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Type Information

Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174246
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller & J. Blitner
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, reef near east entrance to Bartolombo Basin in Bartolombo Bay, NW end of Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174250
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller, N. Haritos & Natives
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, creek mouth and bay in Port Bradshaw on west side about 5 miles in from mouth, Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174248
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller et al.
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, beach on north side of island in Port Bradshaw, 3 miles from mouth. Westward from Cape Arnhem., Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174249
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller & Natives
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, bay, sandy and rocky beach at first sheltered point in from entrance to Port Bradshaw, west side., Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 2
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174247
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller et al.
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, coral reefs at Yirrkala - near Cape Arnhem, Arnhem Land., Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174245
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller et al.
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, lagoon at Fred Grey's camp - area of Thompson's Bay, Groote Eylandt., Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1.1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 39 m (Ref. 11897)
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Depth range based on 39 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 28 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 39
  Temperature range (°C): 21.472 - 29.221
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 2.154
  Salinity (PPS): 30.220 - 36.012
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.349 - 5.079
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 0.506
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.910 - 8.403

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 39

Temperature range (°C): 21.472 - 29.221

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 2.154

Salinity (PPS): 30.220 - 36.012

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.349 - 5.079

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 0.506

Silicate (umol/l): 0.910 - 8.403
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Feeds on zooplankton, small bottom-living invertebrates (Ref. 5980). Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Atherinomorus lacunosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Atherinomorus lacunosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
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Wikipedia

Hardyhead silverside

The hardyhead silverside, Atherinomorus lacunosus, is a silverside of the family Atherinidae, found in the Indo-Pacific near the surface. Its length is up to 25 cm.

References[edit]

  • Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Atherinomorus lacunosus" in FishBase. May 2006 version.
  • Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, (William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1982) ISBN 0-00-216987-8
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