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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Reported to be mainly a nocturnal species which usually forms schools (from several hundred to more than 100 m long and 20 m wide) (Ref. 9760). Feeds mostly at night when the school disperse. Feeds on a variety of planktonic crustaceans. Preyed upon by sharks, tunas, long toms, and amberjacks which swim alongside the school. Among its other predators are crested terns, gannets, sea-gulls and herons. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302). Sold fresh, or salted and dried (Ref. 12484). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
  • Kimura, S., D. Golani, Y. Iwatsuki, M. Tabuchi and T. Yoshino 2007 Redescriptions of the Indo-Pacific atherinid fishes Atherinomorus forskalii, Atherinomorus lacunosus, and Atherinomorus pinguis. Ichthyol. Res. 54(2):145-159. (Ref. 58474)
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Atherinomorus lacunosus (Forster, 1801)

Aegean Sea : 8900-160 (2 spc.), 08.07.1962 , Bodrum .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 40-40, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: from East Africa to Tonga, north to southern Japan, and south to northernAustralia; except Andaman Sea. Replaced by Atherinomorus insularum in the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 37816).
  • Kimura, S., D. Golani, Y. Iwatsuki, M. Tabuchi and T. Yoshino 2007 Redescriptions of the Indo-Pacific atherinid fishes Atherinomorus forskalii, Atherinomorus lacunosus, and Atherinomorus pinguis. Ichthyol. Res. 54(2):145-159. (Ref. 58474)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 5 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 10; Analspines: 1; Analsoft rays: 12 - 17; Vertebrae: 43 - 44
  • Kimura, S., D. Golani, Y. Iwatsuki, M. Tabuchi and T. Yoshino 2007 Redescriptions of the Indo-Pacific atherinid fishes Atherinomorus forskalii, Atherinomorus lacunosus, and Atherinomorus pinguis. Ichthyol. Res. 54(2):145-159. (Ref. 58474)
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm ---
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Max. size

25.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635))
  • Kuiter, R.H. and T. Tonozuka 2001 Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 1. Eels- Snappers, Muraenidae - Lutjanidae. Zoonetics, Australia. 302 p. (Ref. 48635)
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Diagnostic Description

This species is distinguished by the following characters: lateral process of premaxilla very low and wide; upper margin of the dentary almost flat distally, no distinct tubercle at the posterior end; posterior tip of the upper jaw reaching to or beyond a vertical through anterior margin of the pupil, sometimes reaching to the center of pupil; small teeth on endopterygoids, not forming obvious ridges; the anus is near or usually behind the posterior tip of the pelvic fin; lower gill rakers 18-24; midlateral scale count 40-44; lower margin of midlateral band reaching below ventral end of the midlateral (third) scale row and reaching to almost the center of the fourth scale row at level of the anal fin origin (Ref. 58474).
  • Kimura, S., D. Golani, Y. Iwatsuki, M. Tabuchi and T. Yoshino 2007 Redescriptions of the Indo-Pacific atherinid fishes Atherinomorus forskalii, Atherinomorus lacunosus, and Atherinomorus pinguis. Ichthyol. Res. 54(2):145-159. (Ref. 58474)
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Description

Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Feeds on zooplankton, small bottom-living invertebrates (Ref. 5980). Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Type Information

Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174246
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller & J. Blitner
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, reef near east entrance to Bartolombo Basin in Bartolombo Bay, NW end of Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174250
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller, N. Haritos & Natives
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, creek mouth and bay in Port Bradshaw on west side about 5 miles in from mouth, Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174248
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller et al.
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, beach on north side of island in Port Bradshaw, 3 miles from mouth. Westward from Cape Arnhem., Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174249
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller & Natives
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, bay, sandy and rocky beach at first sheltered point in from entrance to Port Bradshaw, west side., Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 2
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174247
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller et al.
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, coral reefs at Yirrkala - near Cape Arnhem, Arnhem Land., Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Paratype for Pranesus maculatus Taylor
Catalog Number: USNM 174245
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Miller et al.
Year Collected: 1948
Locality: Australia: Northern Territory, lagoon at Fred Grey's camp - area of Thompson's Bay, Groote Eylandt., Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia, Gulf of Carpentaria, Pacific
Depth (m): 1.1
  • Paratype: Taylor, W. R. 1964. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. 4: 140, pl. 26.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 39 m (Ref. 11897)
  • Kulbicki, M., J.E. Randall and J. Rivaton 1994 Checklist of the fishes of the Chesterfield Islands (Coral Sea). Micronesica 27(1/2):1-43. (Ref. 11897)
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Depth range based on 39 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 28 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 39
  Temperature range (°C): 21.472 - 29.221
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 2.154
  Salinity (PPS): 30.220 - 36.012
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.349 - 5.079
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 0.506
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.910 - 8.403

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 39

Temperature range (°C): 21.472 - 29.221

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 2.154

Salinity (PPS): 30.220 - 36.012

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.349 - 5.079

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 0.506

Silicate (umol/l): 0.910 - 8.403
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Common in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Atherinomorus lacunosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Atherinomorus lacunosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Atherina sp. LIDMA

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Atherina sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
  • van der Elst, R. 1993 A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. (3rd Ed.). Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 398 p. (Ref. 12484)
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Wikipedia

Hardyhead silverside

The hardyhead silverside, Atherinomorus lacunosus, is a silverside of the family Atherinidae, found in the Indo-Pacific near the surface. Its length is up to 25 cm.

References[edit]

  • Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Atherinomorus lacunosus" in FishBase. May 2006 version.
  • Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, (William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1982) ISBN 0-00-216987-8
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