Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits shallow protected coastal reefs, in seagrass beds, and in coral-rich areas (Ref. 9710, 48635). Feeds on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 37816). Solitary (Ref 90102). Protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 089707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Distribution

Range Description

General
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is a western Pacific species found from the Philippines to Australia.

Specific
Dampier Islands (off Western Australia) to the Capricorn Islands (off the southern Great Barrier Reef); including Palau, New Britain (Papua New Guinea) and the Solomon Islands (Heemstra and Randall 1993); East Andaman Sea (Allen and Stone 2005), Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia.
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Western Pacific: Philippines to Australia (Dampier Islands, off Western Australia to the Capricorn Islands, of the southern Great Barrier Reef); including Palau, New Britain, and the Solomon Islands.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Indo-West Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7 - 8
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm ---
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Max. size

40.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635))
  • Kuiter, R.H. and T. Tonozuka 2001 Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 1. Eels- Snappers, Muraenidae - Lutjanidae. Zoonetics, Australia. 302 p. (Ref. 48635)
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Diagnostic Description

Juveniles dark brown with bright yellow dorsal, anal, pelvic and tail fins. At size about 9 cm, small scattered blue dots appear and yellow on fins begins to recede (Ref. 37816); characterized further by brown to reddish brown color, usually mottled; head, body and fins covered with numerous white to bluish spots; several pale bars evident on side; scales ctenoid scales on body including abdomen; greatest body depth 2.6-3.0 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.1 in head length (Ref 90102).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Type Information

Type for Cephalopholis kendalli
Catalog Number: USNM 55911
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): C. Pierson
Locality: Philippines: Luzon, Sorsogon, Bacon, Luzon, Sorsogon, Philippines, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
General
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is a reef-associated species found at depths from 1 to 50 m. It inhabits shallow protected coastal reefs, in seagrass beds, and in coral-rich areas (Lieske and Myers 1994, Kuiter and Konozuka 2001). Feeds on crustaceans and fishes (Myers 1999).

Feeding
C. cyanostigma individuals 9.8 to 21.4 cm: about 75% of diet are fishes, apogonids, pomacentrids, caeesionids, clupeids, and 25 % Small invertebrates (Beukers-Stewart and Jones 2004).

Reproduction and maturity
C. cyanostigma may live up to 46 years (Mosse 1997). Late onset of sexual maturity, long spawning season (seven months) (Mosse 1997). The species is listed as protogynous; male to female ratio in Great Barrier Reef is 0.4:1 (Mosse 1997). Vulnerable to overfishing, regional variability in growth rates (Mosse 1997).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 22 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 13 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 21
  Temperature range (°C): 17.852 - 29.266
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 1.819
  Salinity (PPS): 32.185 - 35.522
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.149 - 5.433
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.079 - 0.380
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.132 - 6.058

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 21

Temperature range (°C): 17.852 - 29.266

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 1.819

Salinity (PPS): 32.185 - 35.522

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.149 - 5.433

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.079 - 0.380

Silicate (umol/l): 1.132 - 6.058
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 50m.
From 1 to 50 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Found among the coral reefs (Ref. 9137).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cephalopholis cyanostigma

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNAGCACTTAGCCTACTAATCCGAGCTGAACTAAGCCAACCGGGCGCTCTACTGGGCGATGACCAAATTTATAATGTTATCGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGTGGTTTCGGAAACTGACTTATTCCACTGATAATTGGTGCCCCAGACATAGCCTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTGCCTCCGTCTTTCTTACTCCTGCTAGCCTCATCTGGAGTAGAAGCAGGTGCTGGTACTGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCTCCCCTAGCCGGCAACCTGGCTCATGCAGGCGCTTCCGTTGATTTAACANTCTTTTCACTACATTTAGCAGGTATTTCATCAATTCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTTATCACAACCATTATTAACATGAAACCTCCCGCCATCTCCCAATACCAAACACCCCTGTTTGTATGGGCTGTATTAATTACAGCTGTCCTTCTTCTTCTTTCCCTCCCCGTTCTCGCTGCAGGTATTACAATGCTTCTAACTGATCGAAACCTGAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCTGGGGGAGGAGACCCAATTCTTTATCAACACTTATTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cephalopholis cyanostigma

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 5 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Ocean Genome Legacy
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Cabanban, A.S., Fennessy, S., Myers, R. & Choat, J.H.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
C. cyanostigma is listed as Least Concern because of its generally wide range and because it is found in a number of marine protected areas, including some large and well-managed parks (e.g., Great Barrier Reef Marine Park). The species is found in the live reef food fish trade, but only occasionally. Therefore, the species warrants monitoring, but to do so will require additional data inputs.

Habitat degradation; low density on shallow reefs; overfishing (Malthusian) in part of its range; also found occasionally in the Live Reef Fish Trade.
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Population

Population
General
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is the most abundant small serranid on the Great Barrier Reef (avg. 7.52 individuals per 1,000 m², but more abundant on the mid rather than the outer shelf) (Pears 2005). It is common in Bali and found in the Solomon Islands (Beeing pers. comm.).

Fisheries-independent data
Visual census surveys in Sabah in the late 1990s show that the species is no longer found (Greenforce, Cabanban pers. comm.).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is vulnerable to overfishing (Mosse 1997) and habitat degradation (fish-bombing, sedimentation; bleaching in some areas). It is found in incidental and subsistence fisheries and occasionally in the live reef food fish trade.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Cephalopholis cyanostigma is found in marine protected areas in some parts of its range. In some areas, it has been shown to migrate out of park boundaries and can be caught 50 m beyond the boundaries of park (Zeller et al. 2003). There are no specific measures for this species.

Although it occurs in a marine protected area in Sabah, visual census has not reported any observations of this species over 10 yrs. Therefore, the park may not be effective for this particular species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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