Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1766)
(Figure 10, Table 1)
Silurus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1766 ZBK :505. Type locality: Brazil and Suriname. Mees (1974:129), as first revisor, restricted the type locality of P. fasciatum to Suriname . Holotype unknown.
Platystoma artedii Guenther , 1864 ZBK :164. Type locality: South America. Type(s): unknown.
Historical review. Linnaeus (1766) described Silurus fasciatus ZBK based on external morphology, including number of fin spines and rays, pigmentation, shape of the rostrum, and texture of the skin. Linnaeus mentioned in his original description the names of Gronovius and Seba, two reknowned cabinet owners (i.e., collectors) at that time. Linnaeus based his description on material owned by one of these gentlemen, apparently Albertus Seba. Engel (1961) and Boeseman (1970) tried to trace the ultimate destination of Seba's zoological material with the intention of helping taxonomists find type specimens. They concluded that only a small part of Seba's original material can be located accurately (Boeseman, 1970). His collections may have found their way to museums in Leningrad, Berlin, Bremen, Stockholm, and The Hague (Boeseman, 1970), as well as London and Paris. We have not been able to locate any type of Silurus fasciatus ZBK .
An English translation of Linnaeus’ original description is as follows:
"Posterior dorsal fin adipose. Anal fin with 13 rays, pelvics with 6 and spotted. Dorsal with 7 rays, caudal 17. Lower jaw short, rostrum flat and dark. Head long, flat, round anterior and reaching 1/2 the length of the body. Dorsum with black and white stripes on each side. Abdomen white. All fins sprinkled with black spots. Dorsal fin near the head, adipose near the tail. Habitat: Brazil and Suriname."
Linnaeus considered both Brazil and Suriname as the type locality of his Silurus fasciatus ZBK . We presume that the locality of Suriname is based directly on the collection that Seba made there in 1758 (Mees, 1974), whereas the reference to Brazil is based indirectly through Seba from Marcgrave (Mees, 1974). We follow Mees (1974:129), the first revisor, in restricting the type locality of P. fasciatum to Suriname.
Eigenmann and Eigenmann (1888, 1889) described four subspecies of P. fasciatum from the Amazon basin; P. f. brevifile ZBK , P. f. nigricans ZBK , P. f. intermedium ZBK and P. f. reticulatum ZBK . The allocation and taxonomic status of these names has not been clarified despite their repetition in standard catalogs (see Gosline, 1945; Fowler, 1915; Mees, 1974). Eigenmann and Allen (1942), Ringulet et al., (1967) and Mees (1974) placed these names in the synonymy of P. fasciatum . Conversely, we place the following names, P. fasciatum brevifile ZBK , P. fasciatum nigricans ZBK , P. fasciatum intermedium ZBK , in the synonymy of P. punctifer , a valid name applied to a species inhabiting the Amazon River (see P. punctifer account below). Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum reticulatum ZBK is elevated herein as P. reticulatum ZBK for a distinct population that inhabits the Parana and Amazon rivers (see below).
Neotype : FMNH 116903 , 516 mm SL, Linker Coppename River, ca. 1 km downstream from confluence of Midden and Linker Coppename rivers , 4°14’5.6”N , 56°36’5.8”W , Suriname , Ted Jantz et al. , 28 February 2004 .
Geographic distribution: Guyana region, including the Essequibo and Suriname rivers and their tributaries, in the countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana (Guyana) (Fig. 11).
FIGURE 10. Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1776) , INHS 48973, 516 mm SL.
FIGURE 11. Distribution of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (black squares), neotype is indicated by a star; and P. tigrinum (black circles).
Material examined: ANSP 175801 , (1), 188 yd. up stream from Essequibo campsite Maipuri , 4º45'43"N , 58º45'52"W , Essequibo River , county of Siparuni VIII -2 , Guyana , D. Allicock , 27 January 1997 . ANSP177346 , (1), (1 ds), Black Water camp , 4°44'00"N , 58°59'00"W , Siparuni River, Essequibo River , county of Essequibo , Guyana , G. Watkins et al. , 6 December 1997 . ANSP 8385 , (1), Suriname River , Suriname . ANSP 177351 , (1), rocky area 200m downstream from Paddle Rock campsite , 4°44'23"N , 58°42'42"W , Essequibo River , Guyana , D. Torres et al. , 6 December 1997 . BMNH 1822.214.171.124 , (1), Suriname , purchased by Damon . BMNH 1971.729.92.93 , (2; 1 ds), Karanambo pools, Rupununi River , Guyana , R. H. Lowe-McConnell , 1971 . BMNH 18126.96.36.199 , (1), Suriname , purchased by Damon . CAS 11626 , (2), Rupununi River , Guyana , C. H. Eigenmann , 1908 . INHS 48974 , (1 ds), Mazaruni-Potaro , 5°59'07.5"N , 58°33'02.9"W , Essequibo River , Guyana , J.W. Armbruster et al. , 19-20 October 1998 . INHS 48973 , (1), large sandbar & small cataract, 31.9 miles SSW Rockstone , 05°31'39.5"N , 58°37’43.6"W , Mazaruni-Potaro , Essequibo River , Guyana , J. W. Armbruster et al. , 21 October 1998 . NRM 6050 , (2), Suriname , Barnet-Lyon1991 . UF 16271 , (1), Marowijne River, at Albina , Suriname , Tjon-A-Hie , July-August 1967 . USNM 225437 , (3; 1 ds), Koekwie creek , 5°31'00"N , 57°10'00"W , Suriname , H. M. Madarie , 15 May 1980 .
Diagnosis: A species of Pseudoplatystoma ZBK distinguished by a combination of the following features: 42- 44 vertebrae versus 37-40 in the most similar species, P. punctifer (see Tables 1, 5 and 9); vertebral complex supporting Weberian apparatus longer than wide; skull at least 1/6 narrower than in other species; usually 10- 11 dark vertical bars, relatively wider than similar species from Amazon River; white vertical bars fewer than black vertical ones; generally, darker dorsally than congeners; pectoral and pelvic fins darker with few or no spots; bars posterior to head and opercle relatively more loop-like than straight; first spinelet of anal fin contacts haemal arch of 24th vertebra; conversely, it contacts haemal arch of 22nd vertebra in P. punctifer from Amazon River; last five vertebral centra shorter than in other species.
Description: Maximum size recorded 900 mm TL. Body moderately slender, profile of head an acute triangle, almost flat anteriorly. In dorsal view, head margins almost parallel, widening anteriorly. Anterior margin of mouth rounded, covered by thick skin. Body widest at pectoral fins, and gradually diminishing in width to caudal peduncle. Dorsal margin from dorsal fin to adipose fin somewhat concave, posterior to adipose fin straight. Ventral margin of body straight. Dorsal surface of cranium rough posteriorly with thin skin firmly attached, anterior region smooth with thicker skin. Middle fontanel extending along dorsal surface of head. Anterior nostril tubular, posterior one covered by small triangular flap. Eye dorsolateral, somewhat ovoid or circular at middle of head. Maxillary barbel very long, reaching beyond pelvic fin, dark dorsally, pale ventrally. Anterior ventral chin barbel shorter, 3/4 of the head length, pale. Posterior ventral chin barbel longer, reaching tip of pectoral spine, pale. Opercular margin pale.
Pigmentation somewhat regular in individuals of this species. Head and body dark dorsally and laterally. Dark pigmentation extending to the lateral line. Ventral region of body whitish. Darker bands present as vertical bars or loops. Vertical bars distributed along side posteriorly to pectoral fin and may reach ventral region of body; some of them with pale bars. Loops in area surrounding the dorsal fin. Dorsal fin rays with spots along their length. Adipose fin with small spots. Caudal fin with few spots, usually 29-40. Pectoral and pelvic fins usually dark. A comparison with other species of Pseudoplatystoma ZBK is in Table 9.
TABLE 1. Descriptive measurements of the body size and shape (in mm), and number of vertebrae for P. fasciatum . Number of individuals measured, 23.
|Snout-posterior occipital process||179.7||115.8+28.7||80-197.4|
|Snout-posterior margin of the opercle||179.7||111.3+29.5||87.3-194.8|
|Dorsal fin spine length||56.7||33.2+10||18.6-58.3|
|Pectoral fin spine length||76||45.5+13||27.8-80.3|
TABLE 1. (continued)
|Maxillary barbel length||219||156.1+29.6||111.3-209.4|
|Anterior chin barbel length||169.3||132+20.5||99.8-169.3|
|Insertion maxillary barbel -eye||72.5||46+10.5||30.6-72.5|
|Insertion maxillary barbel -joint pectoral spine||143.5||87+24.2||58.5-155.4|
|Insertion maxillary barbel -joint dorsal spine||201.6||122.9+32.3||83.8-209.8|
|Eye -joint pectoral spine||80.5||45.8+14||29.2-84.6|
|Eye -joint dorsal spine||129.5||76.7+21.1||52.7-134.4|
|Joint pectoral spine -joint dorsal spine||90.1||50.9+14.5||33-90.5|
|Joint pectoral spine -joint first pelvic ray||128.2||68.5+22.8||46.1-137.2|
|Joint pectoral spine -joint last ray of dorsal fin||114||65.7+18.9||43.2-119.8|
|Joint dorsal spine -joint first pelvic ray||101.2||50.9+18.8||34.1-107.5|
|Dorsal fin base length||38.9||22.3+7.2||14.2-41.9|
|Joint first pelvic ray -joint last dorsal fin ray||74.2||36.3+14.2||25.8-80.5|
|Joint first pelvic ray -anal fin origin||122.5||69+19.6||45.4-122.5|
|Joint first pelvic ray -origin adipose fin||131.8||71.6+20.4||50.2-131.8|
|Last dorsal fin ray -anal fin origin||153.9||84.4+26.2||60.5-153.9|
|Last dorsal fin ray -adipose fin origin||131||72.6+20.4||52.9-131|
|Anal fin origin -adipose fin origin||61.3||32.2+11.2||20.6-64.7|
|Anal fin base length||55.5||30.4+10.1||21.6-55.5|
|Anal fin origin -adipose fin terminus||62||33.6+11.1||24.5-66.1|
|Adipose fin origin -anal fin terminus||67.7||38.7+13||24-77.6|
|Adipose fin length||39.2||24.1+7.9||12.1-39.2|
|Anal fin terminus -adipose fin terminus||36.6||20.5+6.7||14.4-36.6|
|Anal fin terminus -ventral caudal fin origin||17.9||11.4+3.7||6.9-23.6|
|Anal fin terminus -dorsal caudal fin origin||34.4||21.3+5.9||15.9-39.2|
|Adipose fin terminus -ventral caudal fin origin||46.4||27.4+7.8||19.4-51.6|
|Adipose fin terminus -dorsal caudal fin origin||26.2||17.7+4.4||13.3-31.6|
|Caudal peduncle depth||31.9||17.9+5.4||12.6-31.9|
|Number of vertebra||43||43.2+0.83||42-44|
- Uriel Angel Buitrago-Suárez, Brooks M. Burr (2007): Taxonomy of the catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) with recognition of eight species. Zootaxa 1512, 1-38: 8-11, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A7987452-69A5-4C79-B0F2-29B889EA3E1B
Diseases and Parasites
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 147
Species With Barcodes: 1
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum or barred sorubim is a species of long-whiskered catfish native to the Corantijn, Essequibo, Orinoco, Paraná and Amazon Basins. The nocturnal predator feeds mainly on other fish and crabs. Females reach a more notable size. They become sexually mature at 56 cm (22 in), males at 45 cm (18 in) and this species reaches a maximum length of 104 cm (41 in) TL. Fecundity seems to be estimated at 8 million eggs per kg, but was recently measured in aquaculture at a lower, and more likely) level of 150 000 eggs laid per kg.
According to Riehl and Haensch, five subspecies have been described:
- P. f. brevifile Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1882
- P. f. fasciatum Linnaeus, 1766
- P. f. intermedium Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888
- P. f. nigricans Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889
- P. f. reticulatum Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889
However, Buitrago–Suárez and Burr place P. f. brevifile, P. f. intermedium, and P. f. nigricans, in the synonymy of P. punctifer. P. f. reticulatum is elevated as another distinct species P. reticulatum.
Currently, all subspecies except P. f. reticulatum are considered synonyms of P. fasciatum.
Reproduction and rearing
|This section contains instructions, advice, or how-to content. (March 2014)|
The species is of interest for aquaculture for food production (and indirectly as conservation measure because it may lower the fishing pressure on wild population), as well as for production of fish for aquariologists. Maturation in earthern tanks of fish caught in the wild is not problematic, since manipulation of fish during fishing and transportation is well done. Reproduction may be obtained with two injections of OVAPRIM® in 24 hours (10% and 90% of the recommended dosis, respectively), ovulation occurs after around 8 hr at 27 °C. Incubation of eggs is carried out in "Zug" jars and hatching occurs 24 hours after fertilization at 26,5 °C. Vitelus resorbtion takes 3 days but larvae start feeding 2 days after hatching, and may start active cannibalism at this moment. Feeding may start 48 hours post-hatching with freshly hatched artemia nauplii, seven times a day. Larvae must be kept in the dark in order to maximize uniform distribution of larvae in the tanks and therefore food availability. After 15 days, food may be completed and then replaced gradually with ground mammalian liver. After 20 days post hatching, fingerling may be fed high quality pelleted food adapted to their size.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum" in FishBase. February 2012 version.
- Le Bail, P.-Y, P. Keith and P. Planquette. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane (tome 2, fascicule II). Publications scientifiques du M.N.H.N, Paris, p. 307 (2000)
- Nuñez et al, 2008. Induced breeding and larval rearing of Surubi, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1766), from the Bolivian Amazon , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01928.x
- Riehl, R. and Baensch, H.A. Mergus Aquarien Atlas p. 510 (2002) 14. edt.
- Buitrago–Suárez, U.A. and Burr, B.M. Taxonomy of the catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) with recognition of eight species Zootaxa 1512 p. 1-38 (2007)
- Baras et al, 2011. How many meals a day to minimize cannibalism when rearing larvae of the Amazonian catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer? DOI:10.1051/alr/2011141 www.alr-journal.org
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