Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits shallow, inshore waters, living on or near the bottom, often congregating in masses around wharves, wrecks and submerged seaweed. During winter they become torpid and remain inshore under rocks in shallow water (Ref. 5951).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Nova Scotia and Gulf of St. Lawrence to Chesapeake Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

This species found in the Atlantic coast of North America and the offshore banks, from Conception Bay, east coast of Newfoundland, and the western and southern parts of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, southward to New Jersey, and occasionally as far as the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.
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Western Atlantic: Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to Chesapeake Bay in USA.
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Western Atlantic.
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Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to Chesapeake Bay in USA.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 380 mm TL
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Max. size

38.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 1,000 g (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 1009)
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to 38 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 1,000 g.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Found in shallow inshore waters on or near bottoms, to depths of 10 m.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A common inshore small labrid that inhabit rocky areas and around pilings, seawalls and wharves. It is found to a depth of 120 m but most abundant in shallow water to 20 m. It usually occurs in schools or small groups. It achieves a maximum size of 1.1 kg and 38 cm. Maximum age six to seven years (Serchuk and Cole 1974).

It spawns chiefly from late spring through early summer. The eggs are buoyant, transparent, 0.75 to 0.85 mm. in diameter, and they do not have an oil globule. Incubation occupies about 40 hours at temperatures of 70° to 72°, but it is probable that about three days are required for hatching in the cooler waters of the Gulf of Maine (55° to 65°).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 10 - 128 m (Ref. 5951)
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Depth range based on 1804 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1173 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 412
  Temperature range (°C): 0.153 - 17.229
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.958 - 26.159
  Salinity (PPS): 30.132 - 35.574
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.618 - 7.807
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.430 - 1.829
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 17.288

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 412

Temperature range (°C): 0.153 - 17.229

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.958 - 26.159

Salinity (PPS): 30.132 - 35.574

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.618 - 7.807

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.430 - 1.829

Silicate (umol/l): 1.599 - 17.288
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Reef-associated; marine; depth to 10 m. Inhabits rocky areas, found around pilings, seawalls and wharves. Aggressive. Usually occurs in schools or small groups.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Omnivorous, feeds on molluscs and crustaceans; also barnacles, sea urchins, marine worms, sea squirts, fish eggs and eelgrass. Feeding ceases when the fish become inactive during winter months. Parasites of the species include 12 trematodes, 6 cestodes, 7 nematodes, 1 acanthocephalan and 1 monogenean (Gyrodactylus adspersi) (Ref. 5951).
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Omnivorous. Eat amphipods, shrimps, young lobster, small crabs, and other small crustacean; also univalve mollusks and the smaller bivalves, hydroids, and annelid worms.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Associations

Known prey organisms

Tautogolabrus adspersus (Cunner) preys on:
Crangon
Pandalidae
Decapoda
Gammaridae
Hyperiidae
Caprellidae
Isopoda
Cumacea
Urochordata
Cancer
Brachyura
Hydrozoa
Polychaeta
Echinodermata
Echinoidea

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Known predators

Tautogolabrus adspersus (Cunner) is prey of:
Urophycis tenuis
Gadidae
Hemitripterus americanus
Mustelus canis

Based on studies in:
USA, Northeastern US contintental shelf (Coastal)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feed on molluscs, crustaceans, barnacles, sea urchins, marine worms, sea squirts, fish; cease feeding in winter
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Spawning occurs from late spring through early summer. At hatching, larvae are about 2 to 2.2 mm long and upon reaching 15 mm, the fish appears to be in adult form.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tautogolabrus adspersus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 26
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Tautogolabrus adspersus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTCTATCTCGTATTTGGCGCCTGAGCCGGAATGGTTGGCACTGCTTTA---AGTCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCAGGGGCACTTCTTGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATCGTCACGGCACATGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTATCCCATTAATG---ATTGGGGCCCCAGACATGGCCTTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCCCCCTCTTTCCTTCTTCTCCTCGCTTCTTCTGGTGTAGAGGCCGGGGCCGGCACTGGATGAACAGTTTATCCCCCCTTGGCCGGGAACCTGGCCCACGCAGGGGCCTCCGTCGACTTA---ACCATTTTTTCCCTACACCTGGCGGGCATCTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACCATCATTAACATGAAACCCCCCGCAATCTCGCAGTACCAAACCCCCCTCTTTGTCTGGGCCGTTTTAATTACTGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTGTCCCTGCCTGTCCTTGCAGCT---GGGATTACAATGCTTYTAACAGACCGAAATCTTAACACCACATTTTTTGATCCCGCAGGAGGGGGAGATCCCATCCTCTATCAACACCTATTTTGATTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is an abundant small coastal labrid. It was exploited for food early last century but is now subject to mainly recreational fishery. The fishery is not percieved as a major threat. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The population status of this species is unknown. Total recreational harvest in 2003/2004 from US wide recreational fishery record 60 metric tones comprising 161,000 individuals (US Marine Recreational Fisheries 2004).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.

Recreational fishing by line is a minor threat. Historically dating back to the late 1800's large catches were recorded for commercial purposes for food (US Marine Recreational Fisheries 2004).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no size or bag limits. This species is monitored in five NE state recreational fishery surveys. Research is needed on the population numbers and range, biology and ecology and the habitat status of the species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Bergall

For information about two submarines from the United States Navy, see USS Bergall.
Cunner occupy a rocky reef in New England

The bergall, also known as the cunner, conner or chogset, Tautogolabrus adspersus, is a species of wrasse native to the western Atlantic, where it is found from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland to the Chesapeake Bay. They inhabit inshore waters living near the sea floor at depths from 10 to 128 m (33 to 420 ft), preferring areas with beds of seaweed, shipwrecks, or wharf pilings. They spend the winter months in a state of torpor underneath rocks. They can reach 38 cm (15 in) in total length, and the greatest weight recorded for this species is 1 kg (2.2 lb). They can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

Often, bergall is mixed in with blackfish (tautog), living on or near the same structures. Much of the food eaten by those bergall living among blackfish are the leftovers from the blackfishes prey.[citation needed] They can be distinguished from the tautog by their pointed snouts. Bergall are generally smaller, so are usually thrown back by anglers who think they caught a "short" tautog. In past years, they have been important commercial fish, but now are considered pests. They can be confused with black sea bass and other grouper, as well as tautog, for their ability to change color.

Tautogolabrus adspersus is currently the only known member of its genus.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Choat, J.H. 2010. Tautogolabrus adspersus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Tautogolabrus adspersus" in FishBase. October 2013 version.
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