Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: parrotfish (English), loro (Espanol)
 
Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1847


Bicolor parrotfish,     Ember parrotfish




Body an elongate oval, compressed; snout profile steep and blunt, especially in large males; teeth fused into a beak with two broad joined plates on each jaw, outer surface of plates smooth, not covered by lips; 1-2 canines on rear side of top jaw; dorsal rays IX, 10; anal rays III, 9; pectoral rays 14-16;  tail fin of IP  adults slightly concave, that of terminal  males strongly so; scales large, smooth, 3 rows on cheek, 2 scales in lowest row; 6 scales on center of nape before dorsal fin; lateral line in 2 sections.

IP:  grey on anterior half and whitish posteriorly with small black spots and dark lines on sides and red fins; TP:  mainly green to bluish green, sometimes purplish on anterior half giving strong bicolor effect; a pair of blue bands on chin and beak blue green. Juvenile:  less than ~ 15 mm - body whitish, with 3 dashed thin brown stripes, lowermost line widest and has pale dots along its length, fins clear; larger individuals (15-25 mm)- body whitish with 3 brown to olive stripes (lower one widest) with white spots, a large white blotch on base of tail fin; a dark bar extending down from base of spines 3-8 of dorsal fin; above 25 mm - 3 stripes well developed, dark bar fades, scales develop dark edges, body with scattered white spots, white blotch on tail fin base.


Size: to 71 cm.

Habitat: it occurs on shallow reefs and around their fringes.

Depth: 1-35 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; the central Gulf of California to Ecuador, as well as the Revillagigedos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo and the Galapagos.
   
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Occurs in seaward reefs. Usually over rocky or coral substrates, at boulder-strewn slopes at the base of high-island cliffs where it may occur in large schools. Large adult usually on upper parts of deep slopes, but seen to about 35 m depth (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 30573). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). An uncommon species (Ref. 9338).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from the East coast of Africa to the Hawaiian and Line islands, French Polynesia (except Rapa and Austral Islands), northwards to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara Islands, Japan, southwards to Australia and New Caledonia. It also occurs in the eastern tropical Pacific.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 5490) and east to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to Shark Bay, Western Australia and the southern Great Barrier Reef. Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Southern Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes (Mauritius, Rodrigues) east to Panama, north to Ryukyu Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), Middleton Reef, New C
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 35 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length max (cm): 71.0 (S)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 42001)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in seaward reefs at 1 to over 30 m depth. Usually over rocky or coral substrates, at boulder-strewn slopes at the base of high-island cliffs where it may occur in large schools. An uncommon species (Ref. 9338).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Some geographical variations. Indonesia adults usually have darker front half that is defined into a broad pale band at night (Ref. 48636). Males develop a gibbus forehead.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type for Scarus rubroviolaceus
Catalog Number: USNM 51749
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: American Samoa: Tutuila Island, Pago Pago, Tutuila, American Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Type: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 316, fig. 56.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a large Scarus (Robertson and Allen 2002) that may form dense schools (300-400 individuals). It is found solitary or in pairs (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). It occurs on non-reefal rocky areas (Robertson and Allen 2002) and on coral reefs (Lieske and Myers 1994). It extends to deeper parts of the reef to 36 m (Humann and DeLoach 1993). It is a fast growing species with maximum age recorded at 15 years in Oman, 11 years in Seychelles and 12 years in the Great Barrier Reef (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 5227)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 16 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 12 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3 - 50
  Temperature range (°C): 27.331 - 28.529
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.352 - 2.498
  Salinity (PPS): 33.044 - 34.500
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.406 - 4.602
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.165 - 0.409
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.461 - 4.599

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3 - 50

Temperature range (°C): 27.331 - 28.529

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.352 - 2.498

Salinity (PPS): 33.044 - 34.500

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.406 - 4.602

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.165 - 0.409

Silicate (umol/l): 1.461 - 4.599
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 1 - 36m.
From 1 to 36 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Occurs in seaward reefs. Usually over rocky or coral substrates, at boulder-strewn slopes at the base of high-island cliffs where it may occur in large schools. An uncommon species (Ref. 9338).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Occurs in seaward reefs. Usually over rocky or coral substrates, at boulder-strewn slopes at the base of high-island cliffs where it may occur in large schools. Large adult usually on upper parts of deep slopes, but seen to about 35 m depth (Ref. 48636). Roving herbivore, that feeds on detritus, turf algae and macroalgae (Ref. 30573, 57615).Was observed to feed in an oblique head-down position, scraping the surface of the turf-covered substratum. Each bite produced a pair of narrow paralle scarpes marked by dislodged algae; scarring of the substartum occurred only occasionally. The bite rate was approximately 15-20 bites per minute, with most bites being grouped in short feeding bouts. Once ingested, all algae were finely triturated by the action of the pharyngeal apparatus. Only a few filaments remained intact (Ref. 34014).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore, Herbivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, detritus, hard corals
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Sex change occurs at 37.4 cm TL and 13 years of age (Ref. 55367).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Scarus rubroviolaceus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGATTCTTCTCAACAAATCATAAAGACATCGGTACCCTCTACCTTGTAAATGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGCACTGCCTTA---AGCCTCCTTATCCGAGCTGAACTAAGTCAACCCGGGGCTCTTCTCGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATCGTTACAGCTCATGCATTTGTAATGATCTTTTTTATAGTCATGCCTATCATGATTGGAGGCTTCGGGAACTGACTCATCCCACTCATG---ATCGGAGCACCTGACATGGCCTTCCCTCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCTCCTTCCTTTCTTCTATTGCTCGCCTCCTCTGGCGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGTACCGGATGGACCGTTTACCCCCCTCTAGCAGGGAATCTTGCACACGCGGGTGCATCCGTTGACCTA---ACAATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGAATTTCGTCTATTCTAGGCGCAATTAACTTTATTACAACCATCATTAACATAAAACCGCCTGCCATCTCCCAGTACCAAACACCCCTCTTCGTATGAGCTGTCTTAATTACTGCCGTGCTTCTTCTCCTCTCACTTCCTGTCCTTGCTGCA---GGAATCACAATGCTTCTTACAGATCGAAATCTAAACACTACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCAGGCGGAGGAGACCCGATTCTTTATCAACACCTCTTCTGGTTCTTCGGTCATCCAGAGGTTTACATTCTTATTCTCCCCGGCTTTGGGATGATTTCCCACATTGTTGCCTACTACTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGGTATATGGGCATGGTCTGAGCCATGATGGCCATCGGCCTACTCGGCTTCATTGTATGGGCCCACCACATGTTCACCGTTGGAATGGATGTTGACACCCGAGCTTACTTTACATCTGCCACAATAATTATTGCCATCCCAACCGGGGTTAAAGTCTTCAGCTGACTG---GCCACCCTCCACGGAGGC---TCAATTAAATGAGAAACCCCTCTTCTCTGAGCCCTGGGTTTCATTTTCCTATTTACGGTTGGGGGTCTAACAGGAATCGTCCTAGCCAACTCATCACTAGACATTGTTCTTCATGACACATACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTA---CTATCCATAGGAGCTGTCTTTGCCATCGTTGCAGCCTTCGTTCACTGATTCCCCCTCTTTACAGGTTACACCCTTCACCCAACCTGAACAAAAATCCACTTCGGAGTAATGTTCATCGGCGTAAACTTGACCTTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTAGGGCTAGCAGGCATGCCTCGA---CGGTACTCAGACTATCCCGACGCCTACACC---CTATGAAATACCATCTCCTCAATCGGCTCCCTAATTTCACTAGTTGCAGTAATTATGTTTTTATTCATCATTTGAGAAGCATTTACTGCAAAACGAGAAGTC---CTATCGGTAGAACTAACATCTACAAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scarus rubroviolaceus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H., Myers, R., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Rocha, L.A., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific. It is one of the most abundant and widespread of all parrotfishes. It is a component of subsistence fisheries and is heavily fished in parts of its range. There have been indications of localized population declines in Indonesia, Philippines and the Solomon Islands. It is found in a number of marine reserves and in remote localities. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. Although there are numerous marine reserves in areas where this species is heavily fished (Coral Triangle Region), most reserves are not very well managed. However, in well-managed reserves parrotfishes tend to recover comparatively quickly and therefore increased management in protected areas and potentially fishery protection might offset the overexploitation of this species. We recommend further monitoring of harvest levels and species catch data.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. www.stri.org/sftep

Source: Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is generally abundant, especially near its range limits, such as in the eastern tropical Pacific (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

In Indonesia, this species was recorded as common but not abundant in Aceh with estimates of 40-60 individuals per hectare (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009), moderately common in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003) and Kupang, west Timor (B. Russell pers comm. 2009). It was recorded in marine reserves in the central Philippines but not from fished areas (Stockwell et al. 2009).

Over the Pacific, abundance estimates record 2-3 individuals per 1,000 m2. In the Western Indian Ocean (Amirantes Seychelles), it was the most abundant large Scarus with abundance estimates of 10-20 individuals per 1,000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
This species is fished in some parts of its range where destructive fishing practices and habitat destruction are prevalent. It is heavily fished in the northern Solomon Islands with evidence of a decline in mean size and numbers of this species in the markets from 2004-2006. It is the second or third most important species in the parrotfish fishery in 2004, but by 2006 the importance of this species in the fishery had declined (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ember parrotfish

The ember parrotfish, Scarus rubroviolaceus, is a species of parrotfish native to . It is also known as the bicolor parrotfish[2] and the redlip parrotfish.[3]

Distribution[edit]

The ember parrotfish is widespread and abundant. It has been found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with its range including Japan, eastern Africa, and the Hawaiian islands.[3]

Description[edit]

The species is sexually dimorphic, with the males possessing a bright, greenish-blue color while the females are a duller brown.[4]

Habitat and behavior[edit]

Diet includes aquatic plants and benthic algea, which they scrape off rocks using their beak.

Importance to humans[edit]

The ember parrotfish is commercially fished, and can be kept in saltwater aquariums.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The genus name, Scarus, comes from the Greek word "skaros", meaning "parrotfish".[2]

References[edit]


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!