Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits lakes and deep runs and pools of small to medium rivers (Ref. 52299). Feeds on aquatic insects, mollusks, amphipods, ostracods, algae, plant seeds and fish (Ref. 79012).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: The range includes the Brazos River drainage west to the Pecos River system of Rio Grande drainage, Texas and southeastern New Mexico, and the Rio Grande in the vicinity of El Paso, Texas; largely in the Edwards Plateau region and its escarpments (Lee et al. 1980). In New Mexico, this species is now found only downstream of Brantley Dam in the lower Pecos River and in the Black River (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996). Populations in Mexico, formerly included in M. congestum, are now assigned to Moxostoma albidum; it is uncertain whether M. congestum occurs in Mexico (Nelson et al. 2004).

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North America: USA; occurrence in Mexico is uncertain.
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Mexico and Texas and New Mexico, U.S.A.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 51 cm

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Maximum size: 650 mm TL
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Max. size

65.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723))
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Type Information

Lectotype; Syntype for Moxostoma congestum
Catalog Number: USNM 171
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Dry Osteological Specimen; Radiograph
Collector(s): J. Clark
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: Rio Salado, Texas, Texas, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Robins, C. R. & Raney, E. C. 1957. Tulane Studies in Zoology. 5 (12): 298.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. F. 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7: 27.; Syntype: Robins, C. R. & Raney, E. C. 1957. Tulane Studies in Zoology. 5 (12): 298.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. F. 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7: 27.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Moxostoma congestum
Catalog Number: USNM 164525
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Clark
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: Rio Salado, Texas, Texas, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Robins, C. R. & Raney, E. C. 1957. Tulane Studies in Zoology. 5 (12): 298.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. F. 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7: 27.; Syntype: Robins, C. R. & Raney, E. C. 1957. Tulane Studies in Zoology. 5 (12): 298.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. F. 1854. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 7: 27.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Warm, clear to moderately turbid, sluggish, low gradient, small to medium rivers. Adults typically occur in pools over rock, gravel, sand, and silt; sometimes in deep runs. Juveniles and young often in riffles and gravelly runs, avoid densely vegetated areas. Occurs also in a few Texas lakes. Spawns in tail of pools just above riffles over clean cobble-gravel-pebble bottoms in water about 0.3-0.6 m deep (Sublette et al. 1990).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Warm, clear to moderately turbid, sluggish, low gradient, small to medium rivers. Adults typically occur in pools over rock, gravel, sand, and silt; sometimes in deep runs. Juveniles and young often in riffles and gravelly runs, avoid densely vegetated areas. Occurs also in a few Texas lakes. Spawns in tail of pools just above riffles over clean cobble-gravel-pebble bottoms in water about 0.3-0.6 m deep (Sublette et al. 1990).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 2 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.25 - 0.25
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds largely on immature aquatic insects in New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

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Global Abundance

1000 - 10,000 individuals

Comments: Although collected regularly in New Mexico, not common in any area (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Spawns in spring, at recorded temperatures of 18-21.5 C (see Sublette et al. 1990).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Moxostoma congestum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGATTCTTCTCTACCAACCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTATATCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGAACTGCCTTA---AGCCTTCTAATTCGAGCCGAACTAAGTCAACCTGGGTCACTCCTCGGTGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTTATTGTCACCGCCCATGCTTTCGTCATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCCATTTTAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTCGTACCATTAATG---ATTGGAGCTCCAGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTTTGACTCCTGCCCCCTTCTTTCCTGCTACTATTAGCCTCTTCTGGGGTTGAGGCTGGAGCCGGAACAGGATGAACAGTATACCCGCCCCTCGCAGGCAATCTTGCTCATGCCGGAGCCTCTGTAGATCTA---ACCATTTTTTCTCTACACCTGGCAGGCGTTTCATCAATTCTTGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACCACAACAATCAATATAAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCTCAATATCAGACCCCCCTGTTTGTATGAGCTGTACTTGTAACAGCTGTTCTTCTTCTTTTGTCACTACCTGTTTTAGCTGCG---GGCATCACCATGCTCTTAACAGACCGAAATCTAAATACAACATTCTTTGACCCGGCAGGGGGAGGAGACCCGATTTTATATCAACACTTATTTTGATTCTTTGGCCATCCAGAAGTATATATTCTTATTTTACCTGGATTCGGAATTATTTCTCACGTCGTAGCCTACTACGCCGGAAAAAAA---GAACCATTTGGCTATATGGGTATGGTCTGAGCTATAATAGCCATTGGTCTTTTAGGTTTTATCGTATGGGCTCATCACATGTTTACTGTGGGGATAGATGTAGACACTCGTGCCTACTTCACATCTGCAACTATAATTATTGCAATCCCAACAGGAGTCAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTT---GCTACGCTCCACGGTGGA---TCTATCAAATGAGAAACCCCCTTGTTATGAGCCCTAGGATTCATCTTCTTGTTTACGGTGGGGGGATTAACCGGAATCGTGCTAGCCAACTCATCATTAGACATTGTACTTCATGATACATATTATGTAGTTGCACACTTCCATTATGTA---CTATCTATGGGTGCCGTATTCGCTATTATAGCGGCGTTTGTCCACTGATTCCCTCTTTTCTCAGGATACACCCTTCACAGCACATGAACAAAAATCCATTTTGGGGTAATATTTATTGGTGTTAATCTAACATTTTTTCCACAACATTTCTTAGGATTAGCCGGAATACCCCGG---CGATATTCCGACTACCCAGACGCTTATGCC---CTATGAAATACAGTCTCTTCTATTGGATCTCTTATTTCACTAGTAGCAGTAATCATGTTTCTTTTCATCTTATGAGAAGCTTTCGCTGCCAAACGAGAAGTA---ATGTCCGTGGAATTAACCGCAACAAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Moxostoma congestum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Small range (mostly in Texas); reduced range and abundance, and locally declining; fragmentation (e.g., dams), stream dewatering, and contaminants probably contributed to a deteriorated status in New Mexico; currently stable overall.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a small range (mostly in Texas); reduced range and abundance, and is locally declining. Fragmentation (e.g., dams), stream dewatering, and contaminants probably contributed to a deteriorated status in New Mexico. It is currently relatively stable overall, so listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Rare
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Rare
    (IUCN 1990)
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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: In New Mexico, formerly widespread and now declining (Sublette et al. 1990); currently extirpated in the Rio Grande and diminishing in the Pecos River drainage; occurs in numbers only in the Black River (Eddy County) and the Pecos River immediately downstream of Lake McMillan (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996). Currently stable in Texas.

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Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Although collected regularly in New Mexico, it is not common in any area (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

In New Mexico, formerly widespread and now declining (Sublette et al. 1990); currently extirpated in the Rio Grande and diminishing in the Pecos River drainage; occurs in numbers only in the Black River (Eddy County) and the Pecos River immediately downstream of Lake McMillan (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

Currently stable in Texas.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Degree of Threat: A : Very threatened throughout its range communities directly exploited or their composition and structure irreversibly threatened by man-made forces, including exotic species

Comments: No specific information is available on factors that have reduced range and abundance, but fragmentation (e.g., dams), stream dewatering, and contaminants probably contributed to a deteriorated status in New Mexico (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

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Major Threats
No specific information is available on factors that have reduced range and abundance, but fragmentation (e.g., dams), stream dewatering, and contaminants probably contributed to a deteriorated status in New Mexico (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

Needs: Needs protected stream quality.

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

Additional information on habitat threats, ecological fragility, population status, and abundance is needed. Protection of stream quality is important.

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Wikipedia

Gray Redhorse

The Gray Redhorse (Moxostoma congestum) is a species of ray-finned fish in the Catostomidae family. It is found in Mexico and the United States.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Scartomyzon was for many years regarded as a subgenus of the genus Moxostoma. Smith (1992) raised Scartomyzon to full genus status. Harris and Mayden (2001) used molecular data to examine phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae. In all trees, Scartomyzon was paraphyletic and embedded in Moxostoma, and Catostomus was never recovered as monophyletic (Xyrauchen was embedded within Catostomus). They concluded that the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of taxa presently included in Moxostoma and Scartomyzon are in need of further study, as are the relationships and composition of the genera Catostomus, Chasmistes, Deltistes, and Xyrauchen, and the phylogenetic affinites of Erimyzon and Minytrema. Based on molecular data, Harris et al. (2002) recommended that Scartomyzon be subsumed into Moxostoma. Nelson et al. (2004) concurred and included in the genus Moxostoma all species that Smith (1992) had assigned to the genus Scartomyzon.

Moxostoma albidum, formerly regarded as a subspecies of M. congestum, was listed as a distinct species by Nelson et al. (2004), based on evidence presented by Harris and Mayden (2001) and Harris et al. (2002).

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