Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in shallow water down to 50 m depth, over sandy and rocky bottoms, but more commonly in grass beds (Ref. 3790). Often seen moving head down among seagrass blades (Ref. 9710). The young are often associated with floating Sargassum (Ref. 3720). Feeds on plants and algae, and also on small crustaceans (Ref. 3720). Rarely consumed (Ref. 3790).
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Distribution

Newfoundland, Bermuda and northern Gulf of Mexico to Argentina
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western Atlantic: Newfoundland (Canada), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Argentina, including the Caribbean (Ref. 3790). Eastern Atlantic.
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Atlantic, in tropical and temperate waters.
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Newfoundland (Canada), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Argentina, including the Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Gibbs, R. H., Jr., 1978; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Tyler, J. C., 1978; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 29 - 37; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 28 - 36
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251))
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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to 20 cm TL (male/unsexed).
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Gibbs, R. H., Jr., 1978; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Tyler, J. C., 1978; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Diagnostic Description

Snout prominently projecting but not very elongate; first dorsal spine originating above posterior part of eye; adult males with two pairs of enlarged recurved spines on each side of caudal peduncle; spines of females only slightly larger than other scale spinules of caudal peduncle (Ref. 13442).
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Found to 50m depths, commonly in grass beds, but also over sandy and rocky bottoms.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 3790)
  • Tyler, J.C. 1978 Monacanthidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3790)
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Depth range based on 162 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 120 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2683
  Temperature range (°C): 4.226 - 27.438
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 26.423
  Salinity (PPS): 34.937 - 37.286
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.728 - 5.209
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.075 - 1.419
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 25.869

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2683

Temperature range (°C): 4.226 - 27.438

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 26.423

Salinity (PPS): 34.937 - 37.286

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.728 - 5.209

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.075 - 1.419

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 25.869
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 50m.
Recorded at 50 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Reef-associated; marine; depth to 50 m. Found associated with sandy and rocky bottoms, but more commonly in grass beds. Young are often associated with floating Sargassum.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Gibbs, R. H., Jr., 1978; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Tyler, J. C., 1978; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds on plants, planktonic and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 33).
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Mostly plants and algae, also on small crustaceans
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Gibbs, R. H., Jr., 1978; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Tyler, J. C., 1978; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on plants, algae and small crustaceans
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

no information.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Gibbs, R. H., Jr., 1978; Lieske, E. and R. Myers, 1994; Tyler, J. C., 1978; Robins, C. R. and G. C. Ray, 1986.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Monacanthus ciliatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 19 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTTTACCTAATTTTCGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGCACTGCCTTAAGCCTACTAATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCTGGAGCACTCCTGGGAGACGATCAAATCTATAATGTGATCGTTACAGCCCACGCTTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATCGGAGGGTTCGGCAACTGACTGATCCCCCTAATGATTGGAGCCCCCGATATAGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAACATGAGCTTCTGATTACTCCCCCCTTCATTCCTGCTCCTCCTTGCTTCTTCAGGAGTTGAAGCCGGGGCTGGGACCGGATGAACTGTCTACCCGCCCCTTGCAGGCAACCTCGCCCATGCAGGAGCGTCCGTAGATCTTACTATTTTCTCGCTTCATTTGGCAGGAATTTCATCAATTCTTGGTGCAATCAACTTCATCACAACAATTATTAACATGAAGCCCCCTGCAATTTCTCAATACCAAACCCCTCTCTTCGTATGAGCCGTTCTAATCACTGCCGTACTGCTTCTTCTCTCACTACCAGTCCTTGCCGCAGGAATTACTATGCTATTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCCGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCCATTCTGTACCAGCACTTGTTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Monacanthus ciliatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 23
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
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Wikipedia

Monacanthus ciliatus

Monacanthus ciliatus, commonly known as the fringed filefish, the cuckold or the leather-fish, is a species of bony fish commonly found in shallow water in the western Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.

Description[edit]

The fringed filefish is a laterally flattened fish with a deeply keeled body and a dewlap on the underside.[2] It typically grows to a length of 10 to 14 cm (4 to 6 in), with a maximum length of 20 cm (8 in). The eyes are large, the snout is short and pointed, and the mouth is small, with strong teeth. The dorsal fin is in two parts; the front section is just behind the eyes and consists of two spines, the first one being long and erectile and the second one being tiny; the second part starts further back and consists entirely of soft rays. The pectoral fins are small and the pelvic fin resembles a spine. The caudal fin is short and fan-shaped and consists of branched soft rays. The skin is clad in very small scales, which gives the fish a leathery appearance. The skin is also dotted with scattered small, pointed, fleshy growths. The colour of the fish varies with the surroundings, being greenish in seagrass meadows and brown or tan on reefs or in sandy areas. There are irregular darker longitudinal stripes and there is often a large black spot on the dewlap.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

M. ciliatus

The fringed filefish is found in shallow parts of the western Atlantic Ocean between Newfoundland and Argentina, in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It is also recorded from the eastern Atlantic coasts of Europe and Africa. It is most commonly found in seagrass meadows, but also frequents coral rubble, sandy areas and sometimes rocky areas. It is a demersal fish and its depth range is 5 to 20 m (16 to 66 ft).[2]

Biology[edit]

The fringed filefish can change its colour rapidly to match its surroundings. It often adopts a head-down position among the seagrasses, algae or gorgonians among which it lives. It feeds on algae and seagrass and picks off the seabed small invertebrates, such as shrimps, amphipods, isopods, ostracods, polychaete worms and molluscs.[1][3]

One male fringed filefish is usually associated with several females, which lay eggs in scoops in the sand or in other concealed places. The eggs are fertilised by the male and then guarded by one of the parents until they hatch. The juvenile fish are pelagic and may be found among floating masses of Sargassum weed.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bailly, Nicolas (2014). "Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill, 1818)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2015-01-09. 
  2. ^ a b c "Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill, 1818)". DORIS. Retrieved 2015-01-09. 
  3. ^ a b Bester, Cathleen. "Fringed filefish". Ichthyology. Florida Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2015-01-09. 
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