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BiologyFound in rivers, lakes and ponds. Also in swamps and rice fields (Ref. 27732, 44894). Adults prefer still or gently flowing water (Ref. 44894), also the muddy bottoms, where they hide in the muck and leaf litter with only their heads sticking out; also found in muddy bottoms of streams and ponds; in Hawaii, can also be found under mats of honohono (Commelina diffusa and California grass (Brachiara nuatica). Feed on worms, small crustaceans, insects, insect larvae, and other small aquatic organisms (Ref. 44091). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Can tolerate temperatures between 2 and 30°C, and can breathe air to supplement respiratory requirements in oxygen-depleted waters. Commonly used by anglers as live bait, so escapes may also have contributed to their spread (Ref. 44894).