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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Sphoeroides pachygaster ( Müller & Troschel, 1848)

Aegean Sea : 23700-576 (1 spc.), May 2001 , Bozcaada Island , trawl , 125 m, L. Eryilmaz ; 23700-580 (1 spc.), October 1999 , Saros Bay , trawl , 180 m, L. Eryilmaz, M. Özulug .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 53-53, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Inhabit sandy, muddy and rocky bottoms (Ref. 2683). Young are pelagic (Ref. 7251). Feed mainly on squid. In southeast Brazil captured between 50 and 145 m (Ref. 47377).
  • Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
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Distribution

circumglobally in tropical and temperate seas; Western Atlantic: La Have Bank to Argentina
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas.
  • Shipp, R.L. 1990 Tetraodontidae. p. 1069-1072. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7464)
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Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas, including western Mediterranean Sea, Hawaiian Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7 - 9; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 8 - 9
  • Smith, M.M. and P.C. Heemstra 1986 Tetraodontidae. p. 894-903. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4919)
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Size

Maximum size: 405 mm SL
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Max. size

40.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26350))
  • Ragonese, S., P. Jereb and U. Morara 1997 Morphometric relationships of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Pisces - Tetraodontidae) of the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Cah. Biol. Mar. 38:283-289. (Ref. 26350)
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Diagnostic Description

Body without prickles (Ref. 559). Brownish above, white below; occasionally with dark spots on flanks (Ref. 4919).
  • Smith, M.M. and P.C. Heemstra 1986 Tetraodontidae. p. 894-903. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4919)
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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Inhabits sandy, muddy and rocky bottoms.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

benthopelagic; marine; depth range 50 - 480 m (Ref. 33352), usually 50 - 250 m (Ref. 10985)
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Depth range based on 431 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 198 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 40 - 50000
  Temperature range (°C): 3.048 - 23.436
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.434 - 32.031
  Salinity (PPS): 33.276 - 38.013
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.870 - 6.184
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.132 - 2.237
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.824 - 47.263

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 40 - 50000

Temperature range (°C): 3.048 - 23.436

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.434 - 32.031

Salinity (PPS): 33.276 - 38.013

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.870 - 6.184

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.132 - 2.237

Silicate (umol/l): 1.824 - 47.263
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 80 - 400m.
From 80 to 400 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits sandy, muddy and rocky bottoms. Young are pelagic (Ref. 7251). Feeds mainly on squid.
  • Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds mainly on squid
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphoeroides pachygaster

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGATTCTTCTCAACCAATCACAAAGACATCGGTACCCTTTACCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCTGGAATAGTGGGGACAGCCTTA---AGCCTCCTCATTCGGGCAGAGTTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCACTCTTAGGTGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATCGTCACAGCCCATGCATTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATACCCATCATGATTGGTGGCTTCGGAAATTGATTAATTCCACTTATA---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAATATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCTCCCTCCTTTCTTCTTCTTCTAGCCTCTGCTGGCGTAGAAGCTGGAGCTGGTACGGGTTGAACCGTGTATCCTCCCTTGGCCGGAAATCTGGCACACGCAGGGGCTTCCGTAGACTTA---ACCATTTTCTCTCTTCATCTTGCGGGTGTCTCGTCGATCCTGGGGGCCATCAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAACATGAAGCCTCCTGCAATCTCGCAATATCAAACACCTTTATTTGTATGAGCGGTCTTAATTACTGCCGTCCTTCTCCTTCTCTCACTCCCAGTTCTTGCAGCG---GGGATTACAATGCTTCTCACAGACCGAAACCTCAACACCACCTTTTTCGATCCGGCTGGAGGTGGGGACCCAATCCTCTATCAACATCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGACACCCAGAAGTTTATATCCTCATTCTGCCCGGCTTCGGAATGATTTCACACATTGTAGCCTACTACGCTGGCAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGTTATATAGGAATGGTTTGAGCCATGATAGCCATTGGCTTATTAGGGTTTATCGTCTGAGCTCACCATATGTTTACAGTGGGAATAGACGTTGACACTCGAGCTTACTTTACTTCTGCTACAATAATTATTGCTATTCCCACCGGGGTAAAAGTGTTTAGCTGATTA---GCTACCCTTCATGGTGGC---TCAATTAAATGAGAAACTCCAATGCTCTGAGCCCTCGGCTTTATTTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGGGGTCTAACAGGTATTGTATTGGCCAACTCCTCCTTAGACATTGTACTTCATGACACTTACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCATTACGTT---CTCTCCATAGGAGCCGTATTTGCCATTATGGGAGCTTTCGTACACTGATTCCCCCTCTTCTCCGGATACACTCTTCATAGTACTTGAACAAAAATCCATTTCGTAGTAATATTTGTAGGAGTAAACTTAACCTTCTTCCCCCAGCACTTCCTCGGGCTTGCAGGAATACCCCGC---CGATACTCTGACTATCCCGATGCCTACGCA---TTATGAAATACAGTTTCATCCATTGGCTCTATAATTTCCCTCGTAGCAGTCATTATGTTCCTATTTATTTTATGAGAAGCATTCGCTGCTAAACGAGAGGTT---AAATCAGTTGAACTAACAATAACCAAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphoeroides pachygaster

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 43
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1996
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Roberts, C.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
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Threats

Vulnerable (VU) (D2)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Schneider, W. 1990 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
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Wikipedia

Blunthead puffer

The blunthead puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster, is a pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae, found circumglobally in tropical and temperate seas, at depths between 50 and 500 m. Its length is up to 40 cm.

References

  • Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Sphoeroides pachygaster" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  • Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, (William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1982) ISBN 0-00-216987-8
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