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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits reef channels or along slopes that are subject to strong currents (Ref. 48637). Occur in current-swept seaward coral reefs. Usually form aggregations and feed on zooplankton as well as sponges (Ref. 9770). Juveniles associated with isolated patches of rubble or crevices with proper-sized shelter holes (Ref. 1602). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form large schools to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 48637). Also taken by drive-in nets (Ref. 9770). Marketed fresh or dried-salted. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874. Popular aquarium fish (Ref. 37816).
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east to the Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef in Australia and New Caledonia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 33 - 36; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 28 - 31
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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4420))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in current-swept seaward coral reefs. Usually forms aggregations and feeds on zooplankton as well as on sponges (Ref. 9770). Juveniles associated with isolated patches of rubble or crevices with proper-sized shelter holes (Ref. 1602). Also taken by drive-in nets (Ref. 9770). Marketed fresh or dried-salted.
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Description: Characterized by dark blue to purplish blue overall color with pale blue margins; teeth red; strongly elevated anteriorly, second dorsal and anal fins; front of eye with deep groove; slightly convex dorsal profile of head, ventral profile strongly convex; upturned mouth, protruding chin; prolonged two upper teeth, visible when mouth is closed; around seven longitudinal rows of small spines on posterior half of body; lunate caudal fin, prolonged lobes in large adult (Ref. 90102).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 5 - 40 m (Ref. 9770)
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Depth range based on 27 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 17 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 6 - 257.5
  Temperature range (°C): 24.846 - 28.529
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.255 - 1.522
  Salinity (PPS): 32.902 - 35.364
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.406 - 4.778
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.118 - 0.254
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.023 - 4.599

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 6 - 257.5

Temperature range (°C): 24.846 - 28.529

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.255 - 1.522

Salinity (PPS): 32.902 - 35.364

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.406 - 4.778

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.118 - 0.254

Silicate (umol/l): 1.023 - 4.599
 
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Depth: 5 - 40m.
From 5 to 40 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in current-swept seaward coral reefs. Usually forms aggregations and feeds on zooplankton as well as sponges. Juveniles associated with isolated patches of rubble or crevices with proper-sized shelter holes (Ref. 1602).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Odonus niger

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACGCGTTGACTCTTCTCAACTAATCACAAAGACATCGGCACCCTATACCTAATTTTCGGTGCTTGAGCCGGGATAGTAGGCACAGCTTTA---AGCTTACTGATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCTCTCTTAGGAGAC---GACCAGATTTACAATGTAATCGTTACAGCACATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTCATCCCTTTAATA---ATTGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCATTCCCTCGGATGAACAACATGAGCTTTTGGCTTCTACCCCCCTCGCTCCTTCTCCTTCTTGCCTCTTCTAGCGTAGAAGCTGGGGCTGGGACCGGATGAACCGTATACCCCCCTCTCGCTGGAAACCTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCCTCTGTAGACCTT---ACCATCTTTTCACTTCACTTAGCCGGTGTTTCATCTATTCTCGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCTGCTATTTCCCAATACCAAACACCATTATTTGTTTGAGCTGTTCTAATTACAGCAGTTCTTCTTCTCCTATCCCTCCCTGTTCTGGCTGCC---GGAATCACAATACTTCTAACCGACCGAAATCTAAACACCACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCCATCCTTTATCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGACACCCCGAAGTATACATTCTCATTCTCCCAGGTTTCGGGATGATTTCTCACATTGTTGCCTACTATTCTGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTCGGCTATATAGGAATGGTTTGAGCTATAATGGCCATCGGACTTTTAGGCTTTATCGTCTGAGCCCACCATATGTTTACAGTCGGGATGGATGTAGACACCCGAGCTTACTTTACCTCAGCTACAATAATTATCGCAATTCCAACGGGTGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTA---GCTACACTGCATGGAGGT---GCAATCAAGTGAGAAACCCCACTCCTATGAGCGCTAGGATTCATTTTCCTATTTACAGTAGGAGGCCTAACAGGCATCGTATTGGCAAATTCGTCACTTGACATCGTACTGCACGACACATACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTC---CTTTCAATAGGAGCTGTATTCGCTATCGTCGCCGCCTTCGTCCACTGATTCCCACTATTTTCTGGCTACACCCTGCACGACACATGGACAAAAATCCATTTCGGAGTAATGTTCGTAGGGGTAAACCTAACATTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTGGGCCTAGCCGGAATGCCTCGA---CGCTACTCAGACTACCCAGACGCCTACACC---CTGTGAAACACAGTATCCTCAATTGGATCTCTAGTGTCCCTAGTAGCAGTCATCTTATTCCTATTTATTATCTGAGAAGCATTTGCAGCTAAACGAGAAGTC---TTATCTGTAGAACTCACCTCAACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Odonus niger

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Redtoothed triggerfish

The red-toothed triggerfish or Niger trigger, Odonus niger, is a triggerfish of the tropical Indo-Pacific area, the sole member of its genus. [1]

Description[edit]

The redtoothed triggerfish is a dark blue bodied fish, ranging up to 50 cm in length. The fins are all blue-green in color, having yellow and light blue trim. It has a lyre shaped caudal fin with a yellow bar between the lobes. Like all triggerfish redtoothed triggers have a retractable dorsal spine.

Their pectoral fins are quite small; as a result they steer mostly with their dorsal and anal fins, which makes them very maneuverable, and they also use these fins to move with an exotic type of propulsion reminiscent of a propellor. It is one of the most singular swimming styles in the ocean.

Behavior[edit]

It inhabits open waters and current-swept seaward reefs between 0 to 35 metres (0–115 feet) and can often be seen in groups turning and circling just under the sea surface while feeding on plankton brought in by the current. Sponges are another part of their menu.

In the Aquarium[edit]

Odonus niger is a hardy member of a saltwater aquarium. It has a reputation as one of the most peaceful of the triggerfish. It is still however a triggerfish and can therefore not be easily kept in an aquarium with invertebrates, although careful selection of invertebrates sometimes can make it possible to keep in a reef aquarium. A single small Niger trigger can be kept in a 40 gallon aquarium, however because they are fast growing a larger tank should be strongly considered. For a full adult specimen a 200 gallon or larger aquarium is advised.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matsuura, K. (2014): Taxonomy and systematics of tetraodontiform fishes: a review focusing primarily on progress in the period from 1980 to 2014. Ichthyological Research, Published online 11 Nov 2014.
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