Overview

Comprehensive Description

Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus, 1758)

Inland water: 10000-190 (1 spc), 20.05.1973 , Kuecuekcekmece Lagoon , Istanbul , N. Meriç .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 42-42, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Inhabit algal zone or eel-grass (Zostera) (Ref. 6733). Adults spawn in May - August . Feed on small crustaceans and fish fry (Ref. 35388). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Consistent paternity is ensured despite brooding of embryos on the outside the male's body. Events of cuckoldry by sneaker males is ruled out through genetic paternity analyses based on molecular markers (Ref. 81011). Each male carries eggs from a single female but females may deposit eggs on several brooding pouches (Ref. 81011).
  • Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
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Description

 Nerophis ophidion is slender and elongate, with a smooth worm like body. Females may grow to 30 cm, males to 20 cm. The slender snout is straight and equal in length to the rest of the head, with a small mouth. Fins are absent apart from a small dorsal fin. Variable in colour but usually green, darker dorsally, lighter green on the sides with whiteish-green or yellow below. Females may have pale blue markings on head and underside, and some fish have vertical rows of spots on the front half of the body.As with seahorses, eggs are incubated by the male pipefish, which carries the eggs in a shallow abdominal groove. Swimming occurs through undulations of the dorsal fin. Spawning occurs from May to August.
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Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco (excluding region from Denmark to Netherlands), also throughout the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
  • Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
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Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Azov Sea, Eastern North Atlantic: Norway to Morocco including Madeira.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 290 mm TL
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Max. size

29.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2058)); 30 cm TL (female)
  • Berg, L.S. 1965 Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 3, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1949). (Ref. 2058)
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Diagnostic Description

Anal, caudal and pectoral fins absent (Ref. 59043). Anal opening below front end of the dorsal fin, 28-33 body rings. Has a strait snout (Ref. 35388).
  • Muus, B.J. and J.G. Nielsen 1999 Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark. 340 p. (Ref. 35388)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 2 - 15 m (Ref. 6733)
  • Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
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Depth range based on 126 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 65 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 222
  Temperature range (°C): 6.889 - 10.246
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.655 - 11.531
  Salinity (PPS): 34.595 - 35.445
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.848 - 6.375
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.394 - 0.771
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.118 - 4.255

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 222

Temperature range (°C): 6.889 - 10.246

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.655 - 11.531

Salinity (PPS): 34.595 - 35.445

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.848 - 6.375

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.394 - 0.771

Silicate (umol/l): 2.118 - 4.255
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 A coastal species living mostly between about 5 to 25 metres deep and rarely found on the shore. It is commonly found amongst seagrass and long stranded seaweed such as bootlace weed Chorda filum, and hence can be found in both rocky and sandy areas. Nerophis ophidion can also tolerate brackish waters of varying salinity.
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Depth: 0 - 15m.
Recorded at 15 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Consistent paternity is ensured despite brooding of embryos on the outside of the male's body instead of a brood pouch characteristic of the family (Ref. 81011, 53335). Events of cuckoldry by sneaker males is ruled out through genetic paternity analyses based on molecular markers (Ref. 81011). Each male carries eggs from a single female but females may deposit eggs on several brooding pouches (Ref. 81011).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nerophis ophidion

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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Wikipedia

Straightnose pipefish

Straightnose pipefish (Nerophis ophidion) is a species of pipefish which lives in brackish water in the eastern Atlantic, the Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Seas.[1]

Description[edit]

The straightnose pipefish initially gives the impression of being a worm. The head is tiny and resembles that of a seahorse, to which this fish is closely related. The body is round in cross-section and the fins are tiny. The only fish with which it might be confused is the broadnosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) but that is more robust and has a hexagonal cross-section. The general colour of the straightnose pipefish is green with a yellowish belly. The female has pale blue markings on the head and body and both sexes become more colourful at breeding time when the male’s snout turns yellow. The average size is about 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) with a maximum of 30 cm (12 in).[2]

Range[edit]

This fish is found in the North-eastern Atlantic along the coasts of Europe, its range extending from southern Norway to Morocco. It is also present in the Baltic, the Mediterranean, and the Black Seas. It inhabits sandy bottoms and is part of the fouling community, at depths from 2 to 15 m (6 ft 7 in to 49 ft 3 in).

Biology[edit]

Head of a straightnose pipefish from the Hryhorivsky Estuary, Black Sea, Ukraine

The straightnose pipefish lives among eel grass and seaweed with its tail wrapped around the vegetation and its head elevated. Here it is well-camouflaged, and feeds on zooplankton and copepods by sucking them in.[2]

This species of pipefish is used as a model to study mate choice and sex role-reversal. Like other species of pipefish and the closely related seahorses, the straighnose pipefish exhibits male parental care, meaning that female reproductive success is limited by her ability to court and mate with a suitable male. In the straighnosed pipefish, female-female competition and mate choice by males has resulted in female-specific coloration, female ornamental skin folds, and more active courtship in females.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Nerophis ophidion" in FishBase. September 2013 version.
  2. ^ a b "Straightnose pipefish: Nerophis ophidion (L.)". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  3. ^ Rosenqvist, G. (1990). "Male mate choice and female-female competition for mates in the pipefish Nerophis ophidion". Animal Behaviour 39 (6): 1110–1115. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80783-3.  edit
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