Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in ponds, swamps, brackish water (Ref. 6028), ditches and beels (Ref. 1479). Adults prefer stagnant waters in muddy streams (Ref. 4833). Feed on worms, insects and small fish (Ref. 6028). Accept chopped fish and shrimp in the aquarium. Breed throughout the year. Mitochondrial hypertrophy, noted in the double cone of the retina of this species, is considered a basic process in oil droplet formation (Ref. 10557) believed to be an adaptation for enhanced visual contrast detection in turbid waters (Ref. 10407). Used as live bait for angling larger snakeheads.
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is recorded from Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar (western Rakhine Yoma only). A record from Yunnan (China) is doubtful, and the species is possibly present in Bhutan.
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Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Yunnan in China.
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Southern Asia: Afganistan, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and China; introduced elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 310 mm ---
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Max. size

31.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833))
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Ecology

Habitat

Indus River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Indus River system. Benthopelagic fish inhabit the water column niche immediately above the bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton. Water quality issues in the Indus River habitat have historically been dominated by sediment loading in a watershed which is subject to high natural erosivity, and early disturbance by sedentary agriculture on the floodplains and valleys, which disturbances began in prehistory and continue to the present time. Major tributaries of the Indus rise in the Himalayan Mountains and the Hindu Kush; these influent rivers include the Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej. The Indus mainstem rises on the Tibetan Plateau and flows generally westward.

The Green Revolution has exacerbated water pollution by considerable additions of nitrate to promote crop growth. Other aggravating factors have included increasing amounts of herbicides and pesticides, as pressures to increase crop production expand. Flow of the perennial Indus is dominated by: (a) meltwaters from the Tibetan icefield, the third largest ice sheet formation in the world; (b) snowfall and snowmelt from higher elevation of the watershed; and (c) episodic monsoonal rains that lead to periodic flooding in the Indus River basin.

There are several high trophic level native benthopelagic freshwater fish taxa found in the Indus River system including: the 70 cm scaly osman (Diptychus maculatus), the 30 cm reba (Bangana ariza), the 30 cm Indus snowtrout (Ptychobarbus conirostris), the 30 cm Kunar snowtrout (Schizothorax labiatus), the 35 cm false osman (Schizopygopsis stoliczkai), the 47 cm Chirruh snowtrout (Schizothorax esocinus), and the 40 cm Sattar snowtrout (Schizopyge curvifrons)..

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Inhabits freshwater streams, rivers, ponds and tanks, generally in the plains. Also found in rice fields and irrigation channels.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Diseases and Parasites

Trichodinosis. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Procamallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phyllodistomum Infestation 4. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Philopinna Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 4. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Palaeorchis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neopecoelina Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neopecoelina Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neocamallanus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neocamallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Isoparorchis Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Genarchopsis Infestation 6. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Genarchopsis Infestation 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Genarchopsis Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Genarchopsis Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Eucreadium Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Euclinostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Euclinostomum Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Contracaecum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Camallanus Infection 11. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Ascaris Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Ascaridia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anchor worm Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anchistrocephalus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allocreadium Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Spawning usually takes place at night in shallow water with a silty substrate. Eggs are laid in nests through elaborate tunnels in vegetated areas which look like vertical columns of water with the eggs floating in the center (Ref. 205). The male and female move towards the center of the nest during spawning where the male entwines his body to the female moving upward while releasing the eggs to be fertilised (Ref. 45309). Eggs are guarded by one or both parents. Hatching takes place in a day (Ref. 6028).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Channa sp.

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Channa sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Channa punctata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTCTATCTTGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGCACAGCTCTA---AGCCTTCTAATTCGAGCAGAACTTAGCCAGCCCGGCGCTCTTCTAGGTGAC---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATCGTCACAGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTCATGGTTATGCCAATAATAATTGGGGGATTTGGTAATTGACTAGTCCCTTTAATA---ATTGGCGCCCCCGACATAGCCTTCCCCCGAATGAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTTCCCCCTTCTTTTCTCTTACTACTGGCCTCTTCCGCAGTTGAAGCTGGGGCCGGAACCGGATGGACAGTTTACCCACCTCTAGCCAGCAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGGGCCTCTGTAGACTTA---ACCATCTTCTCATTACACCTTGCAGGTGTCTCCTCTATTTTAGGAGCCATCAACTTCATTACAACGATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCTCAGTACCAAACTCCCTTATTTGTGTGAGCTATTTTAATTACAGCCGTACTTCTCCTTCTGTCCCTTCCAGTCTTAGCCGCC---GGGATCACAATATTGCTCACCGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCCGCTGGCGGAGGAGACCCCCTTCTCTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Channa punctata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Chaudhry, S.

Reviewer/s
Britz, R., Dey, S.C., Jha, B.R., Vishwanath, W. & Allen, D.

Contributor/s
Molur, S.

Justification
Channa punctata is a widespread species with no known major widespread threats, and no evidence as yet that it is a species complex. The species is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The species is a prolific breeder and rapid developments; breeds in ponds almost throughout the year by building circular nets between marginal weeds; peak breeding before and during monsoon months.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to the species are not known.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Widely distributed species with little information on population, trends, and threats. Research on these aspects are recommended.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial; bait: occasionally
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