Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Primarily a brackish water fish that enters and lives in fresh water. In freshwater, adults occur mainly in larger water bodies (rivers and streams) with mud or clay substrates, and rarely found in smaller streams. Form schools of 10 to 25 individuals. Diurnal. Oviparous, distinct pairing possibly like other members of the same family (Ref. 205).
  • Pethiyagoda, R. 1991 Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 362 p. (Ref. 6028)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in coastal regions and the lower reaches of rivers throughout the Indian subcontinent eastwards to the Indochinese peninsula and southwards to Sundaic Southeast Asia.
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Asia: countries bordering the eastern Indian Ocean, from India to Indonesia and Viet Nam. Reported from Pakistan (Ref. 4833).
  • Pethiyagoda, R. 1991 Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 362 p. (Ref. 6028)
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Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 400 mm TL
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Max. size

46.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 41236))
  • Menon, A.G.K. 1999 Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Misc. Publ., Occas. Pap. No. 175, 366 p. (Ref. 41236)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits estuaries and tidal rivers and lakes, ascending to freshwater, often entering the sea (Talwar and Jhingran 1991).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1.2
  Temperature range (°C): 28.885 - 28.885
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.075 - 0.075
  Salinity (PPS): 32.200 - 32.200
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.427 - 4.427
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.339 - 0.339
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.465 - 4.465

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 1.2
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Diseases and Parasites

Echinorhynchus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Arthur, J.R. and A.B.A. Ahmed 2002 Checklist of the parasites of fishes of Bangladesh. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper (T369/1), 77 p. (Ref. 42533)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mystus gulio

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Ng, H.H.

Reviewer/s
Pal, M., Vishwanath, W. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s
Molur, S.

Justification
Despite being targeted in artisanal fisheries, being sometimes harvested as an ornamental fish and demonstrated population declines in parts of its range, the level of exploitation is not deemed high enough to be a threat to long-term survival of this species, which is still considered relatively abundant. This species is therefore assessed as Least Concern here. However, it should be noted that there are taxonomic problems surrounding the identity of this species and it is likely that what is currently classified as Mystus gulio may consist of several species with more geographically circumscribed distributions. Should this be the case, it may be necessary to reassess this species in the near future.
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Population

Population
Although Patra et al. (2005) report a mean decline of 33.6% in catch for this species in the Sundarbans (Ganges-Brahmaputra estuary) for the period 1960-2000 and Mishra et al. (2009) report a decline of 27.8% in catch for this species in southwestern Bengal for a similar period, there is insufficient data from other areas where this species is naturally distributed. Current indications are that this is a widespread, common species.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Although the southern West Bengal population is threatened from overfishing, threats to this species in the rest of its range are unknown. Since there is no information on the biology of this species, the impact of potential threats (especially those of an anthropogenic nature) remains unknown. The current threats to aquatic biodiversity in all of its known distribution have also not been adequately identified.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There is insufficient information on the biology and potential threats for this species. Catch data for this species is also needed. The identities of the Southeast Asian populations require study to resolve their identities.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Pethiyagoda, R. 1991 Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 362 p. (Ref. 6028)
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