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BiologyMainly marine but enters brackish estuaries with relatively high salinities (Ref. 5217). Feeds mainly on small fishes and invertebrates. The dorsal and pectoral fins are equipped with a serrated erectile spine, both of which are venomous. Commonly caught by anglers along bridges, piers and catwalks. Flesh considered good; marketed fresh (Ref. 5217). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.