Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found close to shore on hard-bottom habitats, occasionally entering brackish water. Adult male territorial and active during the day to feed and rests in crevices at night. Prefers temperatures above 10°C. Spawning was noted in June-July in Canadian waters, but appears more protracted (April-July) in coastal waters of Virginia, USA. Feeds mainly on mussels, gastropods, other mollusks and crustaceans. This species has gained popularity as a prized food and sport fish (Ref. 6486, 4926, 41297). Investigation on the diel and seasonal activity patterns of the adult tautog in its southern range were conducted using ultrasonic telemetry (Ref. 41297).
  • Leim, A.H. and W.B. Scott 1966 Fishes of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. (155):485 p. (Ref. 4926)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from South Carolina, USA to Nova scotia, Canada. It is most abundant from Cape Cod to Chesapeake Bay.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Bay of Fundy to South Carolina, most abundant between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: slightly east of Halifax in Nova Scotia, Canada to South Carolina in USA; most abundant between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay.
  • Leim, A.H. and W.B. Scott 1966 Fishes of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. (155):485 p. (Ref. 4926)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

East of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada to South Carolina, USA; most abundant between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Leim, A. H. and W. B. Scott, 1966; Hostetter, E. B. and T. A. Munroe, 1993.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 16 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7 - 8
  • Leim, A.H. and W.B. Scott 1966 Fishes of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. (155):485 p. (Ref. 4926)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 910 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

91.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 11.3 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 34 years (Ref. 6486)
  • Hostetter, E.B. and T.A. Munroe 1993 Age, growth, and reproduction of tautog, Tautoga onitis (Labridae: Perciformes) from coastal waters of Virginia. Fish. Bull. 91:45-64. (Ref. 6486)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

to 91 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 11 kg.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Leim, A. H. and W. B. Scott, 1966; Hostetter, E. B. and T. A. Munroe, 1993.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from Tautogolabrus adspersus which occurs in the same area and further north, by its steep, rounded dorsal head profile; stouter body; scaled lower gill cover; and the more backward location of the pelvic fins.
  • Leim, A.H. and W.B. Scott 1966 Fishes of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. (155):485 p. (Ref. 4926)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species has many of the same biological features as the Achoerodus species. It is fairly long-lived in the south and there is a possibility that nothern populations are even longer lived still but there is no available demographic data from northern populations (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2008).

There is little field based biological information available especially concerning spawning and reproductive behavior despite the amount of effort put into the catch and fishery statistics of this species (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2008).

This species inhabits shallow water in the summer but migrates to deeper water (25-40 m) when temperatures fall below 10°C. Adults are usually associated with reefs and manmade structures (Arendt et al. 2001). Adult males are territorial and active during the day to feed and rest in crevices at night. Newly settled individuals and small juveniles occur in estuaries (Dorf and Powell 1997). Juveniles are found in seagrass or algal beds (Bigelow and Schroeder 2001). This species undergoes seasonal migrations (Olla et al. 1974)

Maximum size is 94 cm (TL) and 11.4 kg. Maximum age is 34 years, age at female maturity is 3-4 yrs and size 14-25 cm (White et al. 2003). This species is slow growing (Hottstetter and Munroe 1993). More recent work suggests that growth rates maybe higher in the far southern end of the range but that work has yet to be peer reviewed ASMFC (2006). Few age estimates from the northern range of this species.

Species is a gonochoristic (Cooper et al. 1997, LaPlant and Schultz 2007), serial spawner, with up to 58 spawnings per season (White 1996), peak spawning is from May to June. Spawning was noted in June-July in Canadian waters, but appears more protracted (April-July) in coastal waters of Virginia, USA. It feeds mainly on mussels, gastropods, other molluscs and crustaceans. This species has gained popularity as a prized food and sport fish (Leim and Scott 1966, Hostetter 1993, Arendt et al. 2001). Investigation on the diel and seasonal activity patterns of the adult tautog in its southern range were conducted using ultrasonic telemetry (Arendt et al. 2001). It spawns in groups or in pairs. Pairing occurs between females and size-dominant males exhibiting strong territoriality and performing a protracted courtship (Hostetter and Munroe 1993). There is no histological evidence yet to prove or disprove the occurrence of hermaphroditism in this species.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Marine

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Found close to shore to depths of 75 m over hard bottoms, occasionally enters brackish waters.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 75 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 102 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 28 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.1 - 60
  Temperature range (°C): 8.485 - 16.407
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.584 - 5.812
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 33.852
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.743 - 6.494
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.390 - 0.671
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.984 - 4.451

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.1 - 60

Temperature range (°C): 8.485 - 16.407

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.584 - 5.812

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 33.852

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.743 - 6.494

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.390 - 0.671

Silicate (umol/l): 1.984 - 4.451
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 1 - 75m.
From 1 to 75 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth to 75 m. Found close to shore in hard-bottom habitats, occasionally entering brackish water.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Leim, A. H. and W. B. Scott, 1966; Hostetter, E. B. and T. A. Munroe, 1993.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Mussels, gastropods, other mollusks and crustaceans.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Leim, A. H. and W. B. Scott, 1966; Hostetter, E. B. and T. A. Munroe, 1993.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds mainly on mussels, gastropods, other molluscs and crustaceans
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Spawns in groups or in pairs. Pairing occurs between females and size-dominant males exhibiting strong territoriality and performing a protracted courtship (Ref. 6488). There is no histological evidence yet to prove or disprove the occurrence of hermaphroditism in this species.
  • Hostetter, E.B. and T.A. Munroe 1993 Age, growth, and reproduction of tautog, Tautoga onitis (Labridae: Perciformes) from coastal waters of Virginia. Fish. Bull. 91:45-64. (Ref. 6486)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Spawning recorded from June to July in Canadian waters, April to July in coastal Virginian waters, USA.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder, W. C., 1953; Leim, A. H. and W. B. Scott, 1966; Hostetter, E. B. and T. A. Munroe, 1993.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Tautoga onitis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AAAGATATTGGCACCCTCTATCTCGTATTTGGCGCTTGAGCCGGAATGGTCGGCACTGCTTTA---AGTCTGCTTATTCGAGCAGAATTAAGCCAACCCGGGGCTCTCCTCGGGGAC---GACCAGATTTACAATGTAATCGTCACGGCGCATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTGTTCCTCTAATG---ATTGGGGCCCCAGACATGGCCTTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATGAGCTTCTGGCTCCTCCCTCCCTCTTTCCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCTTCCGGCGTAGAAGCCGGGGCCGGTACCGGATGAACAGTCTATCCCCCCTTGGCTGGAAACCTGGCCCACGCAGGGGCCTCCGTCGACCTG---ACCATCTTTTCCCTGCATCTGGCAGGCATTTCTTCAATTCTAGGGGCCATTAATTTTATTACAACCATTATCAACATAAAACCCCCCGCTATCTCGCAGTATCAAACGCCCCTGTTTATCTGGGCCGTCCTAATTACTGCCGTCCTTCTCCTTCTGTCGCTCCCTGTCCTTGCTGCT---GGGATCACAATACTTCTCACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTTGACCCTGCAGGGGGAGGGGACCCCATTCTTTACCAACACCTATTTTGATTTTTTGGTCAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tautoga onitis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2bd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H. & Pollard, D.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Liu, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is a large, relatively long-lived temperate water labrid with a restricted geographic range. It has been subject to an intense, recorded recreational fishery between 1982 and 2005, during which there has been substantial declines in catch and the estimated spawning biomass. In a comprehensive assessment of the Tautog fishery of the north-eastern American states (ASMFC Fisheries Focus 2006), fisheries investigations suggest that overfishing is occurring on a coastwide basis. Fisheries data from 1984 to 2003 indicated a decrease in population of 50-73% in the southern portion of its range, although declines in the northern (Canadian) portion of its range are not known. Therefore, the overall population is estimated to have declined of at least 40% over three generation lengths (45 years) reaching the threshold for Vulnerable under Criterion A. For most such larger coastal species living near high population centres, the improvements in fish-finding and navigational electronics means the catch rates are going to increase, and therefore the declines may also continue. The catches are very high compared to the similar sized Australian wrasses of the genus Achoerodus, and the CPUE seems to be declining. Very little information is available on the reproductive behaviour of this species and there is a shortage of demographic information from the species northern range. More reseach on this species' ecology and harvest is recommended.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
A very good set of catch and fishery statistics is available for this species, but most of the data are fishery dependent. Peak abundance from fisheries estimate 40,000,000 individuals in 1982 and 20,000,000 in 2003 (ASMFC 2006). Therefore, over the past 24-30 years there has been a decline of 50% of the estimated population.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The Tautog has been subject to an intensive fishery over the last two decades (ASMFC Fishery Focus 2006) of which recreational fishing accounts for 90% of recorded landings. Over this time recreational landings in the Atlantic United States have declined from a peak of 4,201,575 kg in 1988 to 1,698,750 kg in 2004, a reduction of 60% in recorded landings (ASMFC Fishery Focus 2006), with effort assumed to be at least constant. Declines in the northern (Canadian) portion of its range are not known.

Despite the development of a live fish trade element, the commercial fishery returns have remained stable and increases in fishing mortality are attributable to the recreational fishery. An intensive stock assessment (ASMFC 2006) confirmed that fishing mortality driven by recreational fisheries was above recommended levels.

A modeling exercise in the stock assessment program indicated a decline in the estimated spawning biomass from 39,916,128 kg in 1986 to 10,886,217 kg in 2004, a 73% reduction (ASMFC Fishery Focus 2006). The main conclusion of the ASMFC reports was that overfishing was occurring and that demography and habitat selection makes this species particularly susceptible to over fishing. Present management initiatives seek to reduce fishing pressure through bag and size limits and seasonal closures.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Vulnerable (VU) (A2bd)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The fishery is subjected to comprehensive assessments among USA east coast states and is also subject to size limits (35-40 cm), bag limits (one to eight per day, but most at three to four), and seasonal closures.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: very high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
  • Nigrelli, R.F. 1959 Longevity of fishes in captivity, with special reference to those kept in the New York Aquarium. p. 212-230. In G.E.W. Wolstehnolmen and M. O'Connor (eds.) Ciba Foundation Colloquium on Ageing: the life span of animals. Vol. 5., Churchill, London. (Ref. 273)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Tautog

For naval ships using this name, see USS Tautog.

The tautog or hoodfish, Tautoga onitis, is a species of wrasse native to the western Atlantic Ocean from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. This species inhabits hard substrate habitats in inshore waters at depths from 1 to 75 m (3.3 to 246.1 ft). It is currently the only known member of its genus.[2]

Barlett (1848) wrote, "[Tautaug] is a Native American word, and may be found in Roger Williams' Key to the Indian Language." The name is from the Narragansett language, originally tautauog (pl. of taut). It is also called a "black porgy" (cf. Japanese black porgy), "chub" (cf. the freshwater chub), "oyster-fish" (in North Carolina) or "blackfish" (in New York/New Jersey, New England).

Description[edit]

Tautog are brown and dark olive, with white blotches, and have plump, elongated bodies. They have an average weight of 1 to 3 lb (0.45 to 1.36 kg) and reach a maximum size of 3 ft (0.91 m), 25 lb (11 kg).

Tautog have many adaptations to life in and around rocky areas. They have thick, rubbery lips and powerful jaws. The backs of their throats contain a set of teeth resembling molars. Together, these are used to pick and crush prey such as mollusks and crustaceans. Their skin also has a rubbery quality with a heavy slime covering, which helps to protect them when swimming among rocks.[3]

Cuisine[edit]

Goode (1884) said, "The tautog has always been a favorite table fish, especially in New York, its flesh being white, dry, and of a delicate flavor."[4]

Davidson recommends grilling, baking, and using it in fish chowder.[5]

Sports fishing[edit]

Popular among fishermen, tautog have a reputation for being a particularly tricky fish to catch. Part of this is because of their tendency to live among rocks and other structures that can cause a fisherman’s line to get snagged. The favorite baits for tautog include: green crabs, Asian shore crabs, fiddler crabs, clams, shrimp, mussels, sandworms, and lobsters. Tautog fishing may also be difficult due to the tendency of fishermen try to set the hook as soon as they feel a hit, rather than wait for the tautog to swallow the bait. Rigs with minimal beads, swivels and hooks should be used to prevent entanglement with the rocks, reefs or wrecks tautog frequent.[citation needed]

Because they are often found in wrecks, they are often seen by scuba divers. They are also popular with spearfishermen, as they are remarkably calm in the presence of divers and are relatively easy to spear.[citation needed]

Lifecycle[edit]

Spawning occurs offshore, in late spring to early summer. The eggs hatch and develop while drifting. All of the young take residence in shallow protected waters and live and hide in seaweed, sea lettuce, or eelgrass beds for protection, and are green in color to camouflage themselves. During the late fall, they move offshore and winter in a state of reduced activity.

Management[edit]

Slow reproduction and growth make tautog more vulnerable to overfishing. The species is managed by focusing on reducing fishing mortality rates, as well as restrictions on gear, size limits, possession limits, and limited fishing seasons. At present, the Blue Ocean Institute recommends that consumers avoid eating this fish because the populations are at low levels that are not considered sustainable.[6]

Around 1920, 750 tons were harvested annually off the New England coast.[7]

In popular culture[edit]

The tautog was the "secret ingredient" in the "Battle Blackfish" episode of Iron Chef America, which aired in July 2008.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Choat, J.H. & Pollard, D. 2010. Tautoga onitis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 November 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Tautoga onitis" in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  3. ^ McClane, A.J., McClane's Field Guide to Saltwater Fishes of North America, 1978, ISBN 0-8050-0733-4
  4. ^ G. Brown Goode, et al., The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States, 1884-7, quoted in Davidson, 1979.
  5. ^ Alan Davidson, North Atlantic Seafood, 1979, ISBN 0-670-51524-8.
  6. ^ "Tautog". Seafood Choices. Blue Ocean Institute. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  7. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Tautog". Encyclopedia Americana. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!