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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits primarily boulder-strewn areas of surge zone and browses on filamentous algae (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Often in schools (Ref. 9710). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 27115.
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Distribution

Range Description

Acanthurus leucopareius is found from the Hawaiian Islands to the Minami-tori-shima (Marcus Island), Mariana Islands and southern Japan from the Ogasawara Islands to Wakayama Prefecture, Honshu. In the Southern Hemisphere it is found from Easter Island, Pitcairn Island, Austral Islands, and Rapa to New Caledonia.
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Western Central Pacific: primarily anti-equatorial; Mariana Islands, southern Japan, Marcus Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands in the north and New Caledonia, Rapa (Austral Islands), and Tuamoto Islands, Pitcairn group, and Easter Island in the south.
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Western Pacific: Hong Kong and Taiwan east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to southern Japan, south to Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands, Matthew and Hunter Islands (New Caledonia), and Rapa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25 - 27; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 23 - 25
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Size

Max. size

25.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450))
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Maximum size: 240 mm NG
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Diagnostic Description

A whitish bar broadly bordered by dark brown from origin of dorsal fin across operculum. Caudal fin without a white posterior margin. Caudal concavity 10.5 to 12 times in SL. Body depth 1.7 to 1.8 times in SL (Ref 9808).
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Type Information

Type for Teuthis leucopareius
Catalog Number: USNM 50712
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): O. Jenkins
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: Honolulu, Hawaii., Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Acanthurus leucopareius inhabits rocky and coral reefs, primarily boulder-strewn areas of surge zone. It browses on filamentous algae, often in large aggregations that overwhelm the defenses of territorial damselfishes and surgeonfishes. It may mix with A. triostegus when feeding. It is classified as a grazer (Green and Bellwood 2009). The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). Acanthurids do not display obvious sexual dimorphism, males assume courtship colours (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010).


Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 9.1
  Temperature range (°C): 22.368 - 27.306
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.067 - 0.365
  Salinity (PPS): 34.253 - 35.552
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.577 - 5.079
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.171
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.498 - 3.666

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 9.1

Temperature range (°C): 22.368 - 27.306

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.067 - 0.365

Salinity (PPS): 34.253 - 35.552

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.577 - 5.079

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.171

Silicate (umol/l): 1.498 - 3.666
 
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 1 - 85 m (Ref. 1602), usually 1 - 85 m (Ref. 27115)
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 9.1
  Temperature range (°C): 22.368 - 27.306
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.067 - 0.365
  Salinity (PPS): 34.253 - 35.552
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.577 - 5.079
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.171
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.498 - 3.666

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 9.1

Temperature range (°C): 22.368 - 27.306

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.067 - 0.365

Salinity (PPS): 34.253 - 35.552

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.577 - 5.079

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 0.171

Silicate (umol/l): 1.498 - 3.666
 
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Depth: 1 - 85m.
From 1 to 85 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acanthurus leucopareius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B.

Reviewer/s
Davidson, L., Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
Acanthurus leucopareius is relatively widespread and is a minor component of the fishery in Hawaii. It is not specifically targeted in any fishery. It is very common in the main Hawaiian Islands and common in the North West Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). It is found in a number of marine protected areas and is therefore listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Fish biomass at the Limahuli offshore site (Hawaii) was dominated by large mobile herbivores. Surgeonfishes were the most important family by weight observed at Limahuli offshore site, followed by triggerfishes, and parrotfishes. Acanthurus leucopareius was among the top five species by weight at this site (Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program accessed 20 April 2010). This species is collected as an aquarium fish in West Hawaii. The total number of individuals caught from FY 2005-2009 was 47 with a total value of $135 (Walsh et al. 2010).

It is one of the top 17 species by weight in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Biomass densities in the NWHI record 0.05 t ha-1and 0.04 t ha-1in the main Hawaiian Islands. This species along with Ctenochaetus strigosus, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Naso lituratus accounted for 46% of the total herbivorous fish biomass and 25% of the total fish biomass in the main Hawaii Island. In the NWHI, these 4 species comprised less than 5% of total fish biomass (Friedlander and DeMartini 2002). It is a dominant fish species in Lawaii Bay, Kauai, Hawaii, biomass of 0.62 t ha-1(Friedlander et al. 2007).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.

Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas in parts of its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Acanthurus leucopareius

Acanthurus leucopareius is a sub-tropical fish known commonly as the Whitebar surgeonfish or the Head-band surgeonfish.[1] It is somewhat commercial in fisheries and is used in aquariums.[2] It was first named by Jenkins in 1903.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Common names for Acanthurus leucopareius at www.fishbase.org.
  2. ^ Acanthurus leucopareius at www.fishbase.org.
  3. ^ Page 39, Surgeonfishes of the world, Volume 4 of Bishop Museum bulletin in zoology. By John E. Randall; published by Mutual Pub., 2001. ISBN 1-56647-561-9/ISBN 978-1-56647-561-7
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