Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in ponds and swamps (Ref. 43281). Occurs in shallow sluggish or standing water habitats with a lot of aquatic vegetation. Common in the floodplain of the lower Mekong. Feeds on zooplankton, crustaceans and aquatic insects. Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).
  • Rainboth, W.J. 1996 Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
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Distribution

Range Description

The species occurs in the Mekong basin, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Cambodia (Rainboth 1996). In Cambodia, the species is recorded around the Tonle Sap lake and river (Thuok and Sina 1997) and known from the Sangke River (Battambang province) (Rot 2002).

In Thailand it is naturally found in the Chao Phraya basin and from the Maeklong basin (Vidthayanon et al. 1997 and Kottelat 2001). Introduced in the Mekong basin (Kottelat 2001) and elsewhere as a result of introductions arising from the ornamental fish trade; its natural range requires some confirmation.
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Asia: originally occurring in the Mekong in Cambodia and Viet Nam and Chao Phraya basins (Ref. 43281). Introduced in the Mekong basin in Thailand and expected in Laos (Ref. 43281). A popular aquarium species which appeared in Colombia because of escapes from aquarium rearing facilities (Ref. 1739).
  • Kottelat, M. 2001 Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications Ltd., Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. 198 p. (Ref. 43281)
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Thailand. Introduced elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 34
  • Kottelat, M. 2001 Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications Ltd., Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. 198 p. (Ref. 43281)
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Size

Maximum size: 150 mm TL
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Max. size

13.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 43281))
  • Kottelat, M. 2001 Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications Ltd., Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. 198 p. (Ref. 43281)
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Diagnostic Description

Body plain silvery (Ref. 43281).
  • Kottelat, M. 2001 Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications Ltd., Colombo 5, Sri Lanka. 198 p. (Ref. 43281)
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Type Information

Type for Trichopus parvipinnis
Catalog Number: USNM 21168
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris
Locality: Laos, Asia
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Found in ponds lakes and swamps with standing water which holds high quantities of aquatic vegetation (Kottelat 2001).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater; pH range: 6.0 - 7.0; dH range: 2 - 25
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Diseases and Parasites

Pop-eye disease. Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
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Dactylogyrus Gill Flukes Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
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Costia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
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Bacterial Infections (general). Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Builds bubble nest. Produces 500-1000 eggs.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trichopodus microlepis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Vidthayanon, C.

Reviewer/s
Kottelat, M., Smith, K. & Allen, D.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is common across Southeast Asia, has a wide range of distribution and habitats, therefore it is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Locally common in all suitable habitats.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats to this species have been reported, however, pollution in wetlands, infrastructure and draining water may impact the species.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures currently in place, research needed for future threats.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: highly commercial
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Wikipedia

Moonlight gourami

Trichopodus microlepis, the moonlight gourami or moonbeam gourami, is a labyrinth fish of the family Osphronemidae.[2] This peaceful, attractive species is a popular aquarium fish.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The moonlight gourami is native to the Mekong River in Cambodia and Vietnam and Chao Phraya basins. This species has been introduced into the Mekong basin in Thailand. It has also been introduced into Colombia due to escaping from aquarium rearing facilities.[3]

This species is found in ponds and swamps. It occurs in shallow, sluggish, or standing water habitats with a lot of aquatic vegetation. It is also common in the floodplain of the lower Mekong.[3]

Appearance and anatomy[edit]

An adult moonlight gourami reaches a length of to up 13 centimetres (5.1 in) SL.[3]

These fish are silvery colored with a slightly greenish hue similar to the soft glow of moonlight. The moonlight gourami’s concavely sloped head distinguishes it from other gourami varieties. The males can be identified by the orange to red coloration of the pelvic fins, as well as the long dorsal fins which ends in a point. In females, the pelvic fins are colorless to yellow, and the dorsal fins are shorter and rounder. During spawning, in males, the orange thread-like ventral fins will intensify and become red.[4]

Ecology[edit]

The moonlight gourami eats insects, crustaceans, and zooplankton.[3]

Like all labyrinth fish, the moonlight gourami has a special lung-like organ that allows it to breathe air directly. Because of this labyrinth organ, it is not unusual to see it go to the surface and gulp air. The ability to breathe air allows the Moonlight Gourami to survive in very low oxygen situations. In fact, if it remains moist it can actually survive out of water for up to several hours.

As with other labyrinth fish, these species are oviparous and employ bubble nests in reproduction and care of fry. The male moonlight gourami begins the spawning process by carefully preparing a bubble nest; this bubble nest tends not to incorporate much plant matter and the bubbles may float around freely.[4] It will then begin to court the female under it by performing a "courtship dance" behavior. Spawning culminates when the male finally wraps itself around the female. While in this embrace, the male turns the female on to her back triggering the female to release her eggs. Up to 2000 eggs may be laid during spawning. The male will fertilize the eggs as they float up to the prepared bubble nest. In the safety of the bubble nest the eggs will incubate for about two to three days before finally hatching.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vidthayanon, C. 2012. Trichopodus microlepis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 April 2014.
  2. ^ Töpfer, Jörg; Ingo Schlindler (2009-05-15). "On the type species of Trichopodus (Teleostei: Perciformes: Osphronemidae)". Vertebrate Zoology (Dresden: Museum für Tierkunde Dresden) 59 (1): 49–51. ISSN 1864-5755. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Trichopodus microlepis" in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  4. ^ a b Axelrod, Herbert R.; Emmens, C.; Burgess, W.; Pronek, N. (1996). Exotic Tropical Fishes. T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0-87666-543-1. 
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