Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits moderately deep water (Ref. 1418). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Larvae and juveniles are often collected in neuston and plankton nets, and midwater trawls (Ref. 1418).
  • Palsson, W.A. and T.W. Pietsch 1989 Revision of the Acanthopterygian fish Family Pegasidae (Order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pac. Fish. (18):38 p. (Ref. 1418)
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Distribution

Range Description

E. papilio is known only from the Hawaiian Islands (Tinker 1978).

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Eastern Central Pacific: known only from the Hawaiian Islands.
  • Tinker, S.W. 1978 Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu. 568 p. (Ref. 583)
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Hawaiian Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 5; Vertebrae: 19
  • Palsson, W.A. and T.W. Pietsch 1989 Revision of the Acanthopterygian fish Family Pegasidae (Order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pac. Fish. (18):38 p. (Ref. 1418)
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Size

Maximum size: 76 mm ---
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Max. size

7.6 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 583))
  • Tinker, S.W. 1978 Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu. 568 p. (Ref. 583)
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Diagnostic Description

Body color olivaceous to yellow olive dorsally and laterally; whitish ventrally; 3 indistinct, double bands of light red on carapace and tail. Species with 3 pairs of dorsolateral body plates; 4 pairs of ventrolateral body plates; a pair of deep pits on dorsal surface of head; 8 (rarely 9) mobile tail rings; concave suborbital shelf, eyes visible in ventral view. Dorsal and ventral ridges of rostrum almost equally expanded with laterally directed denticles. Medial spine on dorsal surface of last tail ring posteriorly directed.
  • Palsson, W.A. and T.W. Pietsch 1989 Revision of the Acanthopterygian fish Family Pegasidae (Order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pac. Fish. (18):38 p. (Ref. 1418)
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Type Information

Holotype for Eurypegasus papilio
Catalog Number: USNM 51549
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Near Bird Island(Molu Manu), Hawaii: 33 To 71 Fms., Center of Bird Island S 7 Deg 30' W 4.3', Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
Depth (m): 60 to 130
Vessel: Albatross
  • Holotype: Gilbert, C. H. 1905. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. 23 (for 1903): 614, 239.
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Paratype for Eurypegasus papilio
Catalog Number: USNM 51665
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: N.E. Coast of Hawaii Island, Kauhola Light, S. 79 Deg., E. 6.7', Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific
Depth (m): 44 to 152
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paratype: Gilbert, C. H. 1905. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. 23 (for 1903): 614, 239.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

E. papilio inhabits moderately deep benthic environments (Palsson and Pietsch 1989). Larvae and juveniles are often collected in neuston and plankton nets, and midwater research trawls (Palsson and Pietsch 1989).


Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 80 - 291 m, usually 80 - 115 m (Ref. 58302)
  • Mundy, B.C. 2005 Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. (6):1-704. (Ref. 58302)
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Depth range based on 14 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 64 - 224
  Temperature range (°C): 18.148 - 23.880
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 3.540
  Salinity (PPS): 34.886 - 35.066
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.430 - 4.951
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.364
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.266 - 3.651

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 64 - 224

Temperature range (°C): 18.148 - 23.880

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 3.540

Salinity (PPS): 34.886 - 35.066

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.430 - 4.951

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.364

Silicate (umol/l): 1.266 - 3.651
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 80 - 291m.
From 80 to 291 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Sorensen, M. & Vincent, A.

Reviewer/s
Curtis, J. & O’Donnell, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
E. papilio is listed as Data Deficient due to the lack of information required to assess this species under any of the IUCN criteria. No new information is available on this species since the last listing of Data Deficient in the 1996 IUCN red list. A listing of Data Deficient does not imply that the species is not threatened, but instead that not enough information exists to estimate extinction risk. Research is needed on E. papilio’s habitat requirements, population numbers/trends and fisheries information.

History
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
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Population

Population
Unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

E. papilio may occur in a number of Hawaiian marine protected areas including Ahihi-kinau, Hanauma Bay, Manele-Huloppe and Waikiki (Wood 2007), but the presence of E. papilio in these protected areas is yet to be determined.

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Wikipedia

Hawaiian sea-moth fish

The Hawaiian Sea-moth fish (Eurypegasus papilio) is a species of fish in the Pegasidae family. It is endemic to Hawaii.

References

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