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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found over muddy sand bottoms of coastal inshore waters (Ref. 47581). Often enters estuaries (Ref. 4833). Forms schools. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
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Distribution

Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia.
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Indo-West Pacific: Port Sudan in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Japan, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), and Australia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 14
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Size

Max. size

11.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424))
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Diagnostic Description

Silvery body; snout with a dark band; dorsal and anal fins with orange tips. Head naked; with nuchal spine. Mouth pointing forward when protracted. Breast with small scales.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 160 m (Ref. 47581)
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Depth range based on 550 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 380 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 8.9 - 175
  Temperature range (°C): 20.221 - 28.385
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.026 - 13.001
  Salinity (PPS): 33.783 - 39.819
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.775 - 4.843
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 1.170
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.037 - 19.483

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 8.9 - 175

Temperature range (°C): 20.221 - 28.385

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.026 - 13.001

Salinity (PPS): 33.783 - 39.819

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.775 - 4.843

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 1.170

Silicate (umol/l): 1.037 - 19.483
 
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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Feeds mainly on copepods and diatoms (Ref. 26908).
  • Yamashita, Y., N. Piamthipmanus and K. Mochizuki 1987 Gut contents analysis of fishes sampled from the Gulf of Thailand. p.33-55. In K. Kawaguchi (ed.) Studies on the mechanism of marine productivity in the shallow waters around the South China Sea with special reference to the Gulf of Thailand. Grant-in-Aid no. 61043019 for OSS, Ministry of Educ. Sci. and Culture, Japan (Ref. 26908)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=26908&speccode=388 External link.
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Diseases and Parasites

Slendrorhynchus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Photopectoralis bindus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 26
Specimens with Barcodes: 37
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Photopectoralis bindus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 9 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTATTAATCCGGGCCGAACTCAGCCAACCTGGAGCCCTCTTAGGAGAC---GACCATATTTATAATGTTATCGTGACCGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTCATGGTTATACCAATTATGATTGGAGGTTTTGGCAACTGACTAATTCCCCTAATA---ATTGGCGCTCCCGACATAGCCTTCCCCCGAATGAATAATATAAGTTTCTGACTTCTCCCCCCATCCTTTCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCCTCCGGAATTGAAGCCGGCGCAGGTACAGGATGAACGGTTTACCCCCCCTTAGCAGGAAACCTTGCTCATGCAGGCGCCTCTGTCGACCTA---ACAATCTTTTCGCTCCACCTTGCCGGAATTTCTTCAATTCTAGGAGCTATCAATTTTATTACAACAATCATTAATATGAAACCCCCAGCGATCTCACAATTCCAGACCCCCCTGTTCGTATGAGCTGTTCTCATCACAGCAGTTCTCCTTCTCCTCTCTCTCCCAGTTCTTGCAGCC---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GGAATT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: high; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
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