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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in coastal waters over sand near reefs. Feeds on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 5213). Edible but spoils easily.
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Distribution

Range Description

Pomadasys maculatus is found throughout the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, and in the western Pacific from China and Taiwan, south to Australia.
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Indo-West Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean (Ref. 11441) and the western Pacific, north to China, south to Australia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 14; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7
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Size

Maximum size: 593 mm ---
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Max. size

59.3 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3626)); max. published weight: 3,200 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found in coastal waters over sand near reefs. Feeds on crustaceans and fish (Ref. 5213).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Small-sized fish of moderately deep body. Isthmus narrow, forming a groove. Chin with 2 pairs or small pores. This species is characterized by several dark large elongate blotches on the upper back, one forming a saddle on the nape.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The grunt, Pomadasys maculatus, is an amphidromous species that is found in coastal inshore waters at a depth range of 20–110 m. It inhabits sandy bottoms close to reefs, open bays, trawling grounds, and estuaries (FAO 2001). It feeds on crustaceans and fishes.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 20 - 110 m (Ref. 12260)
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Depth range based on 187 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 48 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 4 - 125.5
  Temperature range (°C): 20.087 - 28.013
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.048 - 21.453
  Salinity (PPS): 32.901 - 36.219
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.953 - 4.725
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 1.837
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 14.825

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 4 - 125.5

Temperature range (°C): 20.087 - 28.013

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.048 - 21.453

Salinity (PPS): 32.901 - 36.219

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.953 - 4.725

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 1.837

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 14.825
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 20 - 110m.
From 20 to 110 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in inshore waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Often found in sandy or muddy areas. Feeds on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 9137).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pomadasys maculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Pomadasys maculatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGGGCTGGTATGGTAGGCACAGCCCTAAGCCTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCGGGTGCACTCCTCGGGGACGACCAGATTTATAACGTAATCGTTACTGCACATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCTATTCTAATTGGTGGTTTCGGAAACTGACTCGTGCCCCTAATGATTGGAGCGCCTGATATGGCATTCCCTCGGATGAACAACATGAGTTTTTGACTACTTCCCCCCTCTTTCCTCCTTCTACTTGCCTCTTCAGGGGTTGAGGCTGGGGCCGGAACCGGATGAACAGTTTACCCACCTTTAGCCGGCAACCTCGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCAGTTGACCTAACCATTTTCTCCCTTCACTTGGCGGGTGTTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACAATTATCAACATAAAACCCCCTGCAATCTCCCAATACCAGACCCCTCTTTTCGTCTGATCTGTACTAGTAACTGCCGTCTTACTACTTCTTTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCCGCTGGCATTACAATGCTTCTGACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACTACCTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGAGACCCAATCCTGTATCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K.E., Livingstone, S. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Pomadasys maculatus has been assessed as Least Concern. Although this species is fished commercially and taken as by-catch in prawn trawls, this is not known throughout its entire broad distribution, and there is no information to suggest that this is causing a significant decline in population size at present. This species may also be impacted by pollution and habitat degradation, but these are likely to be localised threats only. Monitoring of the harvest and by-catch levels, the extent of harvest, and habitat status of this species is needed, to determine if these threats are likely to cause significant population declines in the future.
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Population

Population
Pomadasys maculatus is commonly found on prawn trawl grounds (FAO 2001).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Pomadasys maculatus is fished commercially and is taken by bottom trawl, handline, set net, trap, and spear (FAO 2001). It is also likely that this species is taken as by-catch by prawn trawl fisheries operating within its range.

This species may also suffer localised declines due to habitat degradation and pollution.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Pomadasys maculatus, however its distribution may coincide with numerous marine protected areas.

Monitoring of the harvest and by-catch levels, the extent of harvest, and habitat status of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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