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Biology

Occurs in coastal habitats during summer and winter (Ref. 1371). Cryopelagic or epontic, from surface down to 1383 m (Ref. 58426). In the Beaufort Sea, it may also be found in brackish lagoons and in almost fresh water in river mouths (Ref. 1371). Although associated with the occurrence of ice (White Sea), it is present in ice-free near-shore waters (Alaska) (Ref. 1371). Onshore-offshore movements are associated with spawning and movements of the ice (Ref. 27547). Feeds mostly on epibenthic mysids, also amphipods, copepods and fishes (Ref. 1371). Also caught with mid-water trawls (Ref. 1371). Utilized as fishmeal and source of oil (Ref. 1371). Euryhaline and eurythermic.

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